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Judaism was the first monotheistic religion, dating back to around 2000 BC. Like Christianity and Islam, Judaism is an Abrahamic faith, tracing its origins to Abraham. Judaism was the first of the Abrahamic faiths. The core of the Judaism as it exists today took shape from a later time period when Moses led the Hebrews from Egypt and climbed Mount Sinai, bringing back the Ten Commandments.


Jewish History

1290 AD - The Jews Expelled from England with 3 Months Notice

By order of King Edward I of England, 16,000 English Jews are expelled from the island. He will give them 3 months to sell their property. Most will sail to France. The Jews have been losing influence and money for decades now being slowly replaced by the Italians in banking. All the King can do is use them as political fodder, making the King look good as he kicks them out of the country (and not incidentally, moving the blame for the country's problems from the King to the Jews.) They won't be back until Oliver Cromwell allows them to return in 1657, over 350 years later.

If you look at my take you will see how I compare the Expulsion of the Jews to the Apache Indians accepting welfare! :-) [1] [2]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
There is a finely balanced tension between the peasantry/monks and the nobility/bishops. During the Crusades some of the bishops and nobility tried to protect the Jews only to be overruled by the peasantry and monks, slaughtering the Jews. One can only imagine what the bishops and nobility were thinking then. I sometimes wonder if the King of Saudi Arabia would be more reasonable if he wasn't afraid that a peace deal with Israel would result in his head being removed from his shoulders and placed on a pike in front of his palace.

BTW, even hundreds of years after the Jews are gone from England, Shakespeare will write of the evil Shylock, the Jew. There are other examples of this use of Jews as bad guys. In such entertainment, the Jews may have taken the position of stereotypical bad guys just as the Indians played the bad guys in early TV westerns... long after the Indians were a danger to anyone. [3] [4]

BIG FYI... the Apaches were actually a danger until the early 1900s when finally someone in the government had the bright idea to give the Indians welfare in the form of a limited number of cattle. The chief had the authority to decide who got this valuable but limited commodity. That caused the Apaches to change their behavior in order to benefit from this largess. This broke the back of the Apache rebellion. All because the government gave them free stuff!


See 1290

1287 AD Jews Expelled from much of France

King Edward I of England needs fast cash to ransom back his cousin, Charles of Salerno, otherwise known as King Charles II of Naples. At this time England controls large portions of France including the Duchy of Gascony. Since King Edward is in France at this time, he orders the Jews expelled from Gascony and confiscates their property, but he is finding it more and more difficult to produce ready cash in this manner. The final expulsion of the Jews from England is coming but the net proceeds from that expulsion will be disappointing for the King. The richest Jew in England has a net worth of about 300 pounds at this time. In current dollars, that is $245,000 using the retail price index.[6]

1263 AD King Opens a Chain of Jewish Pawnshops

The Magdeburg Laws (German law protecting city merchants) are spreading across Europe. The upshot is that BY LAW, Jews are not subject to it's restrictions! Since the Jews are under the protection of the King, this has the effect of allowing Jews to accept STOLEN PROPERTY BY LAW! Since the King taxes the Jews directly, "fencing goods" works out well for the King, but the Jews have little choice. [7]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Jews, oddly enough, become the property of the kings throughout Europe, placing them in a very interesting position vis-à-vis the local community leaders (barons, lords of the manor, etc). The King often depended on the direct taxation of the Jews rather than depending on the various Barons and Sheriffs to collect the taxes and somehow deliver it safe to the King. But direct taxation and/or confiscation of Jewish property provided an incentive to treat the Jews as a secondary income source for the King.

In Jew vs Jew Grudge Match.. the Jews win!

Pablo Christiani, a Jewish Christian convert, debates the famous Rabbi Moses ben Nachman (Nachmanides) on which religion is best. King James of Aragon (Spain) is so impressed that he awards the Rabbi 300 maravedis, the equivalent of $11,829 dollars (as of Dec 5, 2013). A couple of years later Pope Clement IV has the rabbi exiled and his pamphlets on the debate burned. [8]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
This is a famous event in Jewish history and I would be slapped in the head if I didn't include it. To be fair, Pablo Christiani was not the best representative for the Christian side and winning the debate did nothing for the Jews. Entire Jewish communities will be wiped off the face of the Earth during this period.

There is a great Jewish joke about this debate but whatever you do, DON'T FOLLOW THE LINK BELOW. It is only funny to Jews like me.


See 1263

Notable individuals

Jews have made contributions in a broad range of human endeavors, including the sciences, arts, politics, and business.[10][11] Although Jews comprise only 0.2% of the world's population, over 20%[11][12][13][14]


Many of Hollywood’s honchos are Jewish, including executives from CBS, Walt Disney, Warner Brothers, News Corp., Sony Pictures Chairman and CBS, whose CEO, Leslie Moonves is a great-nephew of David Ben-Gurion.[15]

The 100 Most Influential Jews of All Time


  • Jesus of Nazareth ca. 4 B.C.E. - ca. 30 C.E.
  • Moses 13th Cen. C.E.
  • Albert Einstein 1879-1955 physicist
  • Sigmund Freud 1856-1936 psychiatrist
  • Abraham ca. 20th-19th cen B.C.E.; according to the Bible, 1813-1638 B.C.E. - Patriarch of Abrahamic religions: Judaeo-Christian, Muslim
  • Saul of Tarsus (Saint Paul) 4 - 64 C.E.
  • Karl Marx 1818-1883 philosopher
  • Mary b. ca. 20 B.C.E.
  • Baruch de Spinoza 1632-1677 philosopher
  • Anne Frank 1929-1945 diarist
  • Judas Iscariot ca. 4 B.C.E. - ca. 30 C.E.
  • Gustav Mahler 1860-1911 composer
  • Niels Bohr 1885-1962 physicist
  • Benjamin Disraeli 1804-1881 politician
  • Franz Kafka 1883-1924 author
  • Marcel Proust 1871-1922 novelist
  • Mayer Rothschild 1744-1812 financier
  • Selman Waksman 1888-1973 developed antibiotics
  • Gregory Pincus 1903-1967 developed birth control pill
  • Leon Trotsky 1879-1940 facilitator of the Russian Revolution
  • David Ricardo 1772-1823 founded classical school of economics
  • Gertrude Stein 1874-1946 author
  • Felix Mendelssohn 1809-1847 musician
  • Louis B. Mayer 1885-1957 motion picture pioneer, MGM
  • Arnold Schoenberg 1874-1951 composer
  • Betty Friedan 1921- feminist; founder of National Orgnanization of Women
  • Casimir Funk * 1884-1967 discoverer of vitamins
  • George Gershwin 1898-1937 composer
  • Leonard Bernstein 1918-1990 musician
  • Levi Strauss 1829-1902 clothier, blue jeans
  • Jonas Salk 1914- physician
  • Henry Kissinger 1923- politician
  • Arthur Miller 1915- playwright
  • Stephen Sondheim 1930- writer of musicals
  • Emma Goldman 1869-1940 anarchist, feminist
  • Jerome Kern 1885-1945 writer of musicals
  • Harry Houdini 1874-1926 magician
  • Edward Bernays 1981- founder of public relations and advertising
  • Groucho Marx 1890-1977 comedian
  • Benny Goodman 1909-1986 clarinetist and bandleader
  • Steven Spielberg 1947- filmmaker
  • Bob Dylan 1941- musician
  • Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster b. 1914; 1914-1992 comics book artist/writer, creators of Superman


  • Werner Hans Erhard (born John Paul Rosenberg), founder of EST.

Computer Science

  • Dan Bricklin, creator of the original spreadsheet Visicalc
  • Larry Page, co-founder of Google
  • Sergey Brin, co-founder of Google
  • Martin Hellman, public key cryptography
  • Bob Kahn, TCP/IP
  • John Kemeny, BASIC


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Jewish_American_biologists_and_physicians
  • Gregory Pincus, contraceptive pill
  • Albert Schatz, streptomycin
  • Selman Waksman, streptomycin, Nobel Prize (1952)
  • Jonas Salk, polio vaccine
  • Leo Sternbach, valium
  • Max Tishler, synthetic vitamins
  • Lynn Margulis, Gaia theory
  • Matthew Meselson, DNA replication
  • Otto Loewi, acetylcholine, Nobel Prize (1936)
  • Eric Lander, Human Genome Project
  • Arthur Kornberg, DNA replication, Nobel Prize (1959)
  • Charles Kelman, cataract surgery
  • Baruch Blumberg, hepatitis B vaccine, Nobel Prize (1976)
  • Konrad Bloch, cholesterol, Nobel Prize (1959)
  • Julius Axelrod, neurotransmitters, Nobel Prize (1970)

Jewish American physicists


  • Albert Einstein (German) theoretical physicist, Nobel Prize (1921) (naturalized citizen)
  • Robert Oppenheimer, nuclear physicist (brother of Frank)
  • Frank Oppenheimer, nuclear physicist (brother of Robert)
  • David Bohm, quantum physicist, philosopher of science
  • Richard P. Feynman, physicist, Nobel Prize (1965) (though he always refused to appear in lists such as this one and other lists or books that classified people by race
  • Theodore Maiman, first operable laser
  • Albert Michelson, speed of light, Nobel Prize (1907)
  • Carl Sagan, astronomer & liberal science popularizer


This is a list of notable Jewish Americans|Jewish American politicians, arranged chronologically. For other notable Jewish Americans, see List of Jewish Americans.


Current Senators

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Name Party State Elected Notes
Carl Levin[20][21] Democratic Michigan 1978 Committee on Armed Services
Dianne Feinstein[22] Democratic California 1992 Select Committee on Intelligence
Barbara Boxer[23] Democratic California 1992 Environment and Public Works Committee and Chair of the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Ethics|Select Committee on Ethics
Ron Wyden[24] Democratic Oregon 1996

Template:American politics/party colors/Democratic/row

Chuck Schumer[25][26] Democratic New York 1998 Democratic Policy and Communications Center and Chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Rules and Administration|Committee on Rules and Administration
Benjamin Cardin[27] Democratic Maryland 2006
Bernard Sanders[28] Independent Vermont 2006 Caucuses with the Democratic Party
Al Franken[29] Democratic Minnesota 2008
Richard Blumenthal[30][31] Democratic Connecticut 2010
Brian Schatz[32] Democratic Hawaii 2012


Current Representatives

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Name Party District Elected Note
Henry Waxman[33] Democratic CA-30 1974 Former chairman of the Committee on Energy and Commerce.
Sander Levin[34] Democratic MI-12 1982 Committee on Ways and Means.
Eliot Engel[35] Democratic NY-16 1988
Nita Lowey[36] Democratic NY-17 1988 DCCC.
Jerrold Nadler[37] Democratic NY-08 1992
Bradley Sherman[38] Democratic CA-27 1996
Janice Schakowsky[39] Democratic IL-09 1998 Democratic leadership as a Chief Deputy Whip.
Susan Davis[40] Democratic CA-53 2000
Steve Israel[41] Democratic NY-02 2000 Chairman of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee.
Adam Schiff[41] Democratic CA-29 2000
Eric Cantor[42] Republican VA-07 2000 House Majority Leader, first Jewish Majority Leader.
Allyson Schwartz[43] Democratic PA-13 2004
Debbie Wasserman Schultz[44] Democratic FL-20 2004 Chairwoman of the Democratic National Committee.
Stephen Cohen[45] Democratic TN-09 2006 First Jewish congressman from Tennessee.[45]
John Yarmuth[46] Democratic KY-03 2006 First Jewish congressman from Kentucky.
Jared Polis[47] Democratic CO-02 2008 First openly gay man elected as a freshman.
Theodore Deutch]][48] Democratic FL-19 2010
David Cicilline[49] Democratic RI-01 2010
Alan Grayson[49] Democratic FL-09 2012
Lois Frankel[49] Democratic FL-22 2012
Brad Schneider[49] Democratic IL-10 2012
Suzanne Bonamici[49] Democratic OR-01 2012
Alan Lowenthal[49] Democratic CA-47 2012

Former Representatives

Template:Expand list


Current Governors

Template:American politics/party colors/Democratic/row
Name Party State Elected Notes
Jack Markell[57] Democratic Delaware 2009 Former Chairperson of the National Governors Association
Former Chairperson of the Democratic Governors Association

Mayors of Large Cities

Current Mayors of large cities

For research:

  • Sacha Baron Cohen, Comedian



Jewish American Hollywood film studio executives


  • Michael Dammann Eisner is an American businessman. He was the chief executive officer of The Walt Disney Company from 1984 until 2005.
  • William Fox was a pioneering American motion picture executive, who founded the Fox Film Corporation in 1915.
  • David Geffen is an American business magnate, producer, film studio executive and philanthropist. Geffen was also one of the three founders of DreamWorks SKG in 1994.
  • Samuel Goldwyn was an American film producer. He was most well known for being the founding contributor and executive of several motion picture studios in Hollywood.
  • Jeffrey Katzenberg is an American businessman, film studio executive and film producer. As a businessman, he is the CEO of DreamWorks Animation and is also known for his tenure as chairman of The Walt Disney Studios from 1984 to 1994
  • Marcus Loew was an American business magnate and a pioneer of the motion picture industry who formed Loews Theatres and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM).
  • Louis Burt Mayer was an American film producer. He is generally cited as the creator of the "star system" within Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) in its golden years. He was one of the founders of AMPAS famous for its "Oscars" Academy Award.
  • David O. Selznick was an American film producer and film studio executive. He is best known for producing Gone with the Wind (1939) and Rebecca (1940), both earning him an Academy Award for Best Picture, and The Third Man (1949).

List of Jewish actors


  • Eva Green 1980– French Dreamers, Casino Royale
  • Jake Gyllenhaal 1980– American Donnie Darko, Brokeback Mountain
  • Scarlett Johansson 1984– American Lost in Translation, Match Point
  • Shia LaBeouf 1986– American Transformers
  • Natalie Portman 1981– Israeli-born American Star Wars, V for Vendetta, Black Swan
  • Daniel Radcliffe 1989– British Harry Potter in the Harry Potter film series
  • Seth Rogen 1982– Canadian Pineapple Express, Knocked Up
  • Elizabeth Banks 1974– American The Hunger Games
  • Sacha Baron Cohen 1971– British Ali G, Borat, Brüno,The Dictator
  • Jon Bernthal 1977– American The Walking Dead
  • Adrien Brody 1973– American The Pianist
  • Emmanuelle Chriqui 1977– Canadian
  • Jennifer Connelly 1970 American
  • Corey Feldman 1971– American
  • James Franco 1978– American James Dean, Spider-Man, 127 Hours
  • Sarah Michelle Gellar 1977– American Buffy the Vampire Slayer
  • Seth Green 1974– American Robot Chicken, Austin Powers
  • Kate Hudson 1979– American Almost Famous, How to Lose a Guy in 10 Days
  • Gwyneth Paltrow 1972– American
  • Joaquin Phoenix 1974– American Walk the Line
  • River Phoenix 1970–1993 American
  • Michael Rosenbaum 1972– American Smallville
  • Eli Roth 1972– American
  • Winona Ryder 1971– American
  • Sarah Silverman 1970– American
  • Alicia Silverstone 1976– American Clueless, Batman and Robin
  • Matt Stone 1971– American South Park
  • Rachel Weisz 1971– British
  • Paula Abdul 1962– American
  • Patricia Arquette 1968– American
  • Jack Black 1969– American School of Rock
  • Helena Bonham Carter 1966– British
  • Lisa Edelstein 1966– American House
  • Jon Favreau 1966– American
  • Melissa Gilbert 1964– American Little House on the Prairie
  • Jennifer Grey 1960– American Dirty Dancing
  • Jennifer Jason Leigh 1962– American
  • Sarah Jessica Parker 1965– American
  • Sean Penn 1960– American
  • Paul Rudd 1969– American
  • Adam Sandler 1966– American Happy Gilmore, Billy Madison, Grown Ups
  • Rob Schneider 1963– American
  • Liev Schreiber 1967– American
  • Kyra Sedgwick 1965– American
  • Pauly Shore 1968– American Encino Man,Son in Law,Bio-Dome
  • Jon Stewart 1962– American The Daily Show
  • Ben Stiller 1965– American Keeping the Faith, Zoolander
  • Tom Arnold 1959– American actor and comedian Convert
  • Rosanna Arquette 1959– American actress, film director, and film producer
  • Ellen Barkin 1954– American actress
  • Roseanne Barr 1952– American actress, liberal writer, talk-show host and comedienne
  • Kate Capshaw 1953– American actress Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom Conversion
  • Jamie Lee Curtis 1958– American film actress, successful writer
  • Daniel Day-Lewis 1957– British-born Academy Award–winning actor Mother (Jill Balcon)
  • Fran Drescher 1957– American film and television actress
  • Harvey Fierstein 1954– American actor, author, and singer
  • Al Franken 1951– American comedian, actor, author, liberal politician
  • Stephen Fry 1957– British comedian, author, actor and filmmaker
  • Kathie Lee Gifford 1953– American singer, songwriter, and actress
  • Jeff Goldblum 1952– American Academy Award–nominated film actor
  • Steve Guttenberg 1958– American actor
  • Nina Hartley 1959– American porn actress
  • Amy Irving 1953– American actress
  • Ron Jeremy 1953– American porn actor
  • Carol Kane 1952– American Academy Award–nominated actress
  • Julie Kavner 1950– American film/television actress voice of Marge on The Simpsons
  • John Landis 1950– American actor, director, writer, and producer
  • Howie Mandel 1955– Canadian comedian and actor
  • Rick Moranis 1953– Canadian comic actor
  • Ron Perlman 1950– American film/television actor Hellboy
  • Kevin Pollak 1957– American actor, impressionist and comedian
  • Paul Reubens 1952– American actor and comedian, Peewee Herman
  • Steven Seagal 1951– American action movie actor and director
  • Jerry Seinfeld 1954– American comedian, actor, and writer Seinfeld
  • Jane Seymour 1951– British-born film/television actress Father
  • Howard Stern 1954– American radio and TV personality
  • Debra Winger 1955– American Academy A
  • Albert Brooks 1947– American Academy Award–nominated actor, writer, comedian and director
  • James Caan 1940– American Academy Award, Emmy and Golden Globe–nominated film, stage and television actor
  • Peter Coyote 1941– American actor and author
  • Billy Crystal 1947– American actor, writer, producer, comedian and film director
  • Larry David 1947– American Emmy-winning actor, writer, comedian, producer and film director
  • Neil Diamond 1941– American singer, guitarist
  • Michael Douglas 1944– American actor and producer, Academy Award Winner Jewish father
  • Richard Dreyfuss 1947– American actor, Academy Award winner
  • Bob Dylan 1941– American singer-songwriter, author, musician and poet, also appeared in several films
  • Harrison Ford 1942– American Academy Award–nominated actor Mother
  • Bonnie Franklin 1944–2013 American actress
  • Paul Michael Glaser 1943– American actor Starsky & Hutch
  • Scott Glenn 1941– American actor
  • Goldie Hawn 1945– American Academy Award–winning film actress, director and producer Presbyterian father, Jewish mother
  • Barbara Hershey 1948– American actress, known for her many film roles
  • Xaviera Hollander 1943– Indonesia-born call girl, madam and porn actress
  • Madeline Kahn 1942–1999 American Academy Award–nominated actress of film, television, and theater
  • Gabe Kaplan 1945– American actor, comedian, and professional poker player
  • Andy Kaufman 1949–1984 American entertainer
  • Eugene Levy 1946– Canadian actor, director, producer and writer
  • Bette Midler 1945– American singer, actress, and comedian, also known as "The Divine Miss M"
  • Frank Oz 1944– British-born American film director, actor and puppeteer Yoda in the Star Wars films
  • Gilda Radner 1946–1989 American comedian and actress Saturday Night Live
  • Harold Ramis 1944–2014 American actor, director, and writer
  • Harry Reems 1947– American theater and porn actor
  • Rob Reiner 1947– American actor, director, producer, writer and anti-tobacco activist, son of Carl Reiner
  • Garry Shandling 1949– American comedian and actor
  • Ron Silver 1946–2009 American film/television actor The West Wing, Reversal of Fortun
  • Brent Spiner 1949– American actor Star Trek: The Next Generation
  • Sylvester Stallone 1946– American actor Rocky Jewish descent (maternal)
  • David Steinberg 1942– Canadian actor
  • Jill St. John 1940– American actress
  • Barbra Streisand 1942– American two-time Academy Award–winning singer, theatre and film actress, composer, film producer and director
  • Lesley Ann Warren 1946– American Academy Award–nominated stage, film and television actress
  • Anson Williams 1949– American actor Happy Days
  • Henry Winkler 1945– American actor, director, producer and author Happy Days
  • Woody Allen 1935– American Academy Award–winning film director, writer, actor, and comedian
  • Alan Arkin 1934– American Academy Award–winning film actor, director
  • Barbara Bain 1931– American actress
  • Richard Benjamin 1938– American actor/film director
  • Dyan Cannon 1937– American three-time Academy Award–nominated film and television actress, editor, producer and director Mother
  • Joan Collins 1933– British actress and bestselling author Father
  • Marty Feldman 1934–1982 British writer, comedian and film and television actor
  • Elliott Gould 1938– American Academy Award–nominated film/television actor
  • Charles Grodin 1935– American actor and former cable talk show host
  • Judd Hirsch 1935– American actor Taxi, NUMB3RS
  • Dustin Hoffman 1937– American two-time Oscar-winning actor
  • Harvey Keitel 1939– Academy Award–nominated American actor
  • Walter Koenig 1936– American actor, writer, teacher and director Appeared in original Star Trek
  • Martin Landau 1931– American Academy Award–winning American film and television actor
  • Michael Landon 1936–1991 American actor, producer and director
  • Piper Laurie 1932– American actress Carrie (1976)
  • Hal Linden 1931– American actor and television director
  • Tina Louise 1934– American model, singer, and film and television actress
  • Paul Mazursky 1930– American film director and actor
  • Leonard Nimoy 1931– American actor, film director, poet, musician and photographer
  • Ron Rifkin 1939– American actor, director
  • Joan Rivers 1933– American comedienne, actress, talk show host, and celebrity
  • George Segal 1934– American film and stage actor
  • William Shatner 1931– Canadian Emmy and Golden Globe Award–winning actor
  • Dame Elizabeth Taylor 1932–2011 British/American Academy Award–winner, film actress & sex symbol Converted to Judaism
  • Gene Wilder 1933– American actor and comedian
  • Ed Ames 1927– American singer and actor, Daniel Boone
  • Beatrice Arthur 1922–2009 American actress, Maude
  • Ed Asner 1929– American actor
  • Lauren Bacall 1924– American Golden Globe and Tony Award–winning, and Academy Award–nominated, film and stage actress
  • Tom Bosley 1927–2010 American film/television actor Happy Days
  • Mel Brooks 1926– American Academy Award–winning actor, writer, director and producer
  • Lenny Bruce 1925–1966 American actor, stand-up comedian, writer, social critic and satirist
  • Sid Caesar 1922–2014 American comic actor and writer
  • Tony Curtis 1925–2010 American actor
  • Rodney Dangerfield 1921–2004 American comedian and actor
  • Sammy Davis, Jr. 1925–1990 American entertainer member of the "Rat Pack" Converted to Judaism
  • Peter Falk 1927–2011 American actor, Columbo
  • Eddie Fisher 1928–2010 American singer father of Carrie Fisher
  • Lee Grant 1927– American Academy Award–winning theater, film and television actress, and film director
  • Buddy Hackett 1924–2003 American comedian and actor
  • Monty Hall 1921– Canadian-born actor, singer and sportscaster Let's Make a Deal
  • Alan King 1927–2004 American comedian and actor
  • Werner Klemperer 1920–2000 German-born American Emmy Award–winning comedic actor, Hogan's Heroes
  • Jack Klugman 1922–2012 American actor
  • Harvey Korman 1927–2008 American actor
  • Al Lewis 1920–2006 American actor best known as Grandpa Munster
  • Jerry Lewis 1926– American comedian, actor, film producer, writer and director known for his slapstick humor and his charity fund-raising telethons
  • Ross Martin 1920–1981 Polish-born American TV and film actor Wild Wild West
  • Walter Matthau 1920–2000 American Academy Award–winning actor
  • Marilyn Monroe 1926–1962 American actress, singer and model Conversion
  • Vic Morrow 1929–1982 American actor
  • Paul Newman 1925–2008 American Academy and Golden Globe Award–winning actor, director Father
  • Charlotte Rae 1926– American actress The Facts of Life
  • Tony Randall 1920–2004 American comic actor
  • Carl Reiner 1922– American actor, film director, producer, writer and comedian
  • Don Rickles 1926– American comedian, film actor, and voice actor
  • Peter Sellers 1925–1980 British comedian, actor, and performer Mother
  • Rod Serling 1924–1975 American screenwriter and actor The Twilight Zone
  • Simone Signoret 1921–1985 French Academy Award–winning actress Father
  • Jerry Stiller 1927– American comedian and actor
  • Mel Tormé 1925–1999 American actor and singer known as one of the great male jazz singers
  • Abe Vigoda 1921– American film/television actor The Godfather
  • Shelley Winters 1920–2006 American two-time Academy Award–winning actress
  • Red Buttons 1919–2006 American Academy Award–winning comedian and actor
  • Lee J. Cobb 1911–1976 American film actor, Academy Award–nominated
  • Kirk Douglas 1916– American film star Spartacus 1960)
  • Eva Gabor 1919–1995 Hungarian-American socialite, film star Aristocats, Gigi, Star Spangled Rhythm, etc.
  • Zsa Zsa Gabor 1917– Hungarian-American socialite, film star, former beauty queen (Moulin Rouge 1952)
  • Paulette Goddard 1910–1999 American Oscar-nominated film and theatre actress
  • Lorne Greene 1915–1987 Canadian actor known for roles on American television
  • Danny Kaye 1913–1987 American film actor, singer and comedian
  • Zero Mostel 1915–1977 American stage and film actor
  • Dinah Shore 1916–1994 American singer and actress
  • Mike Wallace 1918–2012 American journalist, who briefly acted during the 1940s
  • Eli Wallach 1915– American film, TV and stage actor, The Good, The Bad, and the Ugly
  • Cornel Wilde 1912-1989 American actor
  • Keenan Wynn 1916–1986 American character actor
  • Milton Berle 1908–2002 American comedian and actor
  • Joe Besser 1907–1988 American comedian and actor one of the Three Stooges comedy team from 1955 to 1958
  • Mel Blanc 1908–1989 American voice actor voice of Bugs Bunny and Daffy Duck
  • Melvyn Douglas 1901–1981 American actor, won all three of the entertainment industries' highest awards, two Oscars, a Tony and an Emmy
  • Larry Fine 1902–1975 American comedian and actor one of the Three Stooges comedy team
  • John Houseman 1902–1988 American actor. Academy Award winner The Paper Chase
  • Curly Howard 1903–1952 American comedian and actor one of the Three Stooges comedy team from 1932 to 1946, brother of Moe and Shemp Howard
  • Peter Lorre 1904–1964 Hungarian-born stage and screen actor
  • Zeppo Marx 1901–1979 American comedian and actor one of the Marx Brothers
  • Jack Benny 1894–1974 American comedian, vaudeville performer, and radio, television, and film actor
  • George Burns 1896–1996 American comedian and actor
  • Leslie Howard 1893–1943 British film actor Gone with the Wind
  • Moe Howard 1897–1975 American comedian and actor the "leader" of the Three Stooges comedy team, brother of Curly and Shemp Howard
  • Shemp Howard 1895–1955 American comedian and actor part of the Three Stooges comedy team until 1932 and from 1946 to 1955, brother of Curly and Moe Howard
  • Sam Jaffe 1891–1984 American film and stage actor Academy Award–nominated\
  • Groucho Marx 1890–1977 American comedian and actor Worked both with his siblings, the Marx Brothers, and on his own
  • Gummo Marx 1893–1977 American comedian and actor One of the Marx Brothers
  • Paul Muni 1895–1967 American Academy Award– and Tony Award–winning actor
  • Edward G. Robinson 1893–1973 American stage and film actor
  • Theda Bara 1885–1955 American silent film actress known as the first screen "Vamp"
  • Al Jolson 1886–1950 American singer and actor
  • Chico Marx 1887–1961 American comedian and actor one of the Marx Brothers
  • Harpo Marx 1888–1964 American comedian and actor one of the Marx Brothers
  • Erich von Stroheim 1885–1957 Austrian-born filmmaker and actor
  • Sarah Bernhardt 1844–1923 French stage actress

Steve Jobs



  • Jesus, inspired the creation of Christianity
  • Apostles, the "Twelve Apostles", first followers of Jesus
  • John the Baptist, revered by Christians
  • Saint Peter, considered the first Pope
  • St. Teresa of Avila, Catholic saint (parents were Conversos)
  • Saul of Tarsus, early Christian leader (Saint Paul)
  • Ram Dass, modern American Hindu author


  1. Historical Events for Year 1290, History Orb
  2. Edict of Expulsion, Wikipedia
  3. The Canterbury Tales, and Other Poems by Geoffrey Chaucer (See: The Prioress's Tale)
  4. The Canterbury Tales, Wikipedia
  5. The Apache Indians: In Search of the Missing Tribe by Helge Ingstad, and others, University of Nebraska Press, 2004
  6. 1287
  7. Jewish Encyclopedia: Magdeburg Law (Magdeburg Rights)
  8. Jewish History (1260-1269) (Note: I know this debate occurred but I cannot vouch for every detail at this site.)
  9. "Pope vs. Jews", This link goes to a religious joke, so use caution. If you can't stand the heat, stop setting your head on fire.
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  12. Shalev, Baruch, 100 Years of Nobel Prizes, 2005, page 57, "A striking fact... is the high number of Laureates of the Jewish faith—over 20% of the total Nobel Prizes (138); including: 17% in Chemistry, 26% in Medicine and Physics, 40% in Economics and 11% in Peace and Literature each. These numbers are especially startling in light of the fact that only some 14 million people (0.2% of the world's population) are Jewish."
  13. http://www.jweekly.com/article/full/16556/as-the-nobel-prize-marks-centennial-jews-constitute-1-5-of-laureates, As the Nobel Prize marks centennial, Jews constitute 1/5 of laureates, April 3, 2012, Dobbs, Stephen Mark, October 12, 2001, "Throughout the 20th century, Jews, more so than any other minority, ethnic or cultural group, have been recipients of the Nobel Prize -- perhaps the most distinguished award for human endeavor in the six fields for which it is given. Remarkably, Jews constitute almost one-fifth of all Nobel laureates. This, in a world in which Jews number just a fraction of 1 percent of the population."
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