Education as a Means for Social Change
It may seem insignificant at first. A book on educational theory is published by John Dewey this year entitled "The School and Society", but his books will present a unified theme that will guide our educational system into the modern day. Dewey builds on the original goals of Horace Mann to bring education to the masses in order to promote social efficiency, civic virtue, and to build character. These are worthy goals, but Mann never really defined what a civic virtue was. Dewey believes that socialism is a progressive virtue that all good parents of a sensible and wise nature would wish for their children. Since an efficient democracy requires that the best virtues should be taught in schools, naturally whatever lessons the lesser parents might want taught to their children is irrelevant. The smart, educated professionals will choose the proper curriculum on their behalf. It is all for the best. (Can you say "Common Core?" I knew that you could.)  
The Philippine-American War and a Silent Shame
The Filipinos have been in rebellion against the Spanish occupation for several years now, but then a misunderstanding occurs when the rebel leader in exile is talking to Admiral George Dewey (no relation to John Dewey, the educator). The Admiral seems to be encouraging him to return to Manila and lead his troops to victory. One might also think that the United States was offering support for the rebels against Spain. This misunderstanding leads to further misunderstandings which leads naturally to the invasion of Manila after the United States had already signed a peace agreement with Spain! It is a little embarrassing, but it could happen to any country... except that the US annexed Hawaii last year, and had long since taken control of the Midway Atoll under the authority of the Guano Act. (No joke.) Wake Island was just sitting there! And then there was the Spanish-American War, and the aforementioned peace agreement in which Spain handed over Puerto Rico and Guam. Now the USA is invading the Philippines to protect it, you see. Greedy Europeans might take advantage of the poor Filipinos after the withdrawal of Spain. (I wish I were kidding. They actually thought this.) Granted, there could have been a misunderstanding somewhere, and frankly, the Europeans might very well have invaded if the USA had not. Nevertheless, the final decision to invade the Philippines is just what it looks like, the US annexation of the Philippines. This is war and the Filipinos are really torqued off.     
- Humphrey Bogart (Film actor and husband of Lauren Bacall) You DOG! 
- Alfred Hitchcock (Director of films like "The Birds" and "Psycho") 
- Friedrich Hayek (Author of "The Road to Serfdom") 
In Other News
- Bayer markets aspirin. If they had invented this drug today it would STILL be waiting for FDA approval. 
- The Nome Gold Rush begins. With the Klondike gold rush winding down, there are gold nuggets in Nome, Alaska that you can scoop off the beach. 
This Year in Wikipedia
Year 1899, Wikipedia.
- Dewey, John. School and Society, The. University of Chicago Press.
- The ideas of democracy and social reform are continually discussed in Dewey's writings on education. Dewey makes a strong case for the importance of education not only as a place to gain content knowledge, but also as a place to learn how to live. In his eyes, the purpose of education should not revolve around the acquisition of a pre-determined set of skills, but rather the realization of one's full potential and the ability to use those skills for the greater good. (November 16, 2016). John Dewey: Publications. wikipedia.org. Retrieved on November 16, 2016. “The ideas of democracy and social reform are continually discussed in Dewey's writings on education. Dewey makes a strong case for the importance of education not only as a place to gain content knowledge, but also as a place to learn how to live. In his eyes, the purpose of education should not revolve around the acquisition of a pre-determined set of skills, but rather the realization of one's full potential and the ability to use those skills for the greater good.”
- Staff Writer (March 9, 2014). Tearful Dennis Rodman vows never to return to North Korea. Daily Mail Online. Retrieved on November 16, 2016. “But critics of Rodman, world diplomatic leaders among them, said he wasted his rare proximity to the ruthless leader King Jong Un, to whom he even sang Happy Birthday at a basketball game he arranged.”
- Wake Island. wikipedia.org (November 16, 2016). Retrieved on November 16, 2016. “On January 17, 1899, under orders from President William McKinley, Commander Edward D. Taussig of the USS Bennington landed on Wake and formally took possession of the island for the United States.”
- Midway_Atoll: 19th century. wikipedia.org (November 16, 2016). Retrieved on November 16, 2016. “Brooks claimed Midway for the United States under the Guano Islands Act of 1856, which authorized Americans to occupy uninhabited islands temporarily to obtain guano. There is no record of any attempt to mine guano on the island. On August 28, 1867, Captain William Reynolds of the USS Lackawanna formally took possession of the atoll for the United States; the name changed to "Midway" some time after this.”
- Hawaii: Annexation. wikipedia.org (November 16, 2016). Retrieved on November 16, 2016. “After negotiations in June 1897, Secretary of State John Sherman agreed to a treaty of annexation with these representatives of the Republic of Hawaii. The U.S. Senate never ratified the treaty. Despite the opposition of most native Hawaiians, the Newlands Resolution was used to annex the Republic to the U.S.; it became the Territory of Hawaii.”
- Puerto_Rico: American era. wikipedia.org (November 16, 2016). Retrieved on November 16, 2016. “On July 25, 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the U.S. invaded Puerto Rico with a landing at Guánica. As an outcome of the war, Spain ceded Puerto Rico, along with the Philippines and Guam, then under Spanish sovereignty, to the U.S. under the Treaty of Paris.”
- Philippine-American War. wikipedia.org (November 16, 2016). Retrieved on November 16, 2016. “Aguinaldo wrote retrospectively in 1899 that he had met with U.S. Consuls E. Spencer Pratt and Rounceville Wildman in Singapore in 1898 between April 22 and 25 and that they persuaded him to again take up the mantle of leadership in the revolution, with Pratt communicating with Admiral George Dewey (the U.S. Navy's Asiatic Squadron commander) by telegram, passing assurances from Dewey to Aguinaldo that the United States would at least recognize the independence of the Philippines under the protection of the United States Navy, and adding that there was no necessity for entering into a formal written agreement because the word of the Admiral and of the United States Consul were in fact equivalent to the most solemn pledge that their verbal promises and assurance would be fulfilled to the letter and were not to be classed with Spanish promises or Spanish ideas of a man’s word of honor.”
- Humphrey Bogart. wikipedia.org (November 16, 2016). Retrieved on November 16, 2016.
- Alfred Hitchcock. wikipedia.org (November 16, 2016). Retrieved on November 16, 2016.
- Friedrich Hayek. wikipedia.org (November 16, 2016). Retrieved on November 16, 2016.