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Madog and Englishmen

The Last Prince of Wales was the first nobleman to be drawn and quartered for his part in the previous Welsh rebellion but Wales is not yet pacified. King Edward I of England is building castles throughout Wales to press his advantage and he has imposed a 15% tax on "all movables" which one presumes to mean "anything that isn't nailed down." The people of Wales have rebelled again and Madog ap Llywelyn, sets himself at their front even though King Edward has been favoring him (probably because Madog opposed the Last Prince of Wales). This rebellion will go well for Madog until summertime of next year when the rebellion will collapse with terrible losses and Madog will be captured but he will not suffer capital punishment. King Edward will impose even harsher sanctions on the Welsh people. The pot is boiling and the King has clamped down on the lid. [1][2][3][4]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Madog seems to be an opportunist and not really opposed to King Edward I. If one looks into his history, he spends a lot of time in England and takes the money offered by the King. The King probably didn't blame Madog for the rebellion itself... but for making a foolish decision in joining it. FYI, there is no record of Madog's death but he was certainly alive in 1312.

No One Crushes This Alliance

What do the Napoleonic Wars, World War I & II and the Falklands War all have in common? The alliance between Portugal and England is more of an understanding than a mutual defense treaty at this time but it will settle the succession crisis in Portugal when King Ferdinand I dies. This alliance will be formalized in the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373 and will draw England into war a number of times including World War I and II. Churchill will stun Parliament by citing the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373 as the reason he is allowed to establish an air and naval base in the Azores. This same facility will be used during the Falklands War as well. And the alliance will draw England into the war against Napoleon when the Duke of Wellington will say:

"All the business of war, and indeed all the business of life, is to endeavor to find out what you don't know by what you do; that's what I called 'guessing what was at the other side of the hill.'" [5][6][7][8][9][10]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Treaties can be good and bad in a number of ways. They are good in that they cause countries to hesitate when contemplating invasion because they must factor in the possibility that they will be fighting ALL the signatories of the treaty and not just the one country. Treaties can also be used as an reason to foist a war upon an unwilling public, or as in Churchill's case, a reluctant Parliament. In America, treaties become "the supreme Law of the Land." That is the reason any long-term treaty must be ratified by two thirds of the Senate. [11]

No One Kow-Tows to Khan Any More

"In Xanadu did Kubla Khan / A stately pleasure-dome decree: / Where Alph, the sacred river, ran / Through caverns measureless to man / Down to a sunless sea."[12]

Kublai Khan had not been paying much attention to his Empire in recent years as his string of failures will attest. Since the death of his wife and son, he has been spending more time indulging in alcohol and nursing his ailments than running the Empire. Now his time has run out to that "sunless sea" and he is no more. He was 79 years old and suffering from gout, alcoholism and obesity. Kublai Khan will be succeeded by his grandson, Temur Khan, but he won't be able to hold the Empire together. This greatest Empire will break up into four parts. [13][14][15][16][17][18]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Kublai Khan suffered from gout which was considered "the rich man's disease". It was thought to be caused by over indulgence in good food and wine. In fact it is a form of arthritis due to urate crystals in the blood that usually collect in the big toe and cause painful swelling. Regarding his rule, he did unite China, and even though parts of China will break away and then be brought back to heel the idea of a united China will remain.[19][20][21]

See Also


  1. 1283, It's Another "First" for Wales!
  2. "National Library of Wales: Dictionary of Welsh Biography: Madog ap Llywelyn" by Professor Thomas Jones Pierce, M.A., F.S.A., (1905-1964), Aberystwyth.
  3. "National Library of Wales: Dictionary of Welsh Biography: Llywelyn ap Gruffydd or Llywelyn the Last" by Professor Thomas Jones Pierce, M.A., F.S.A., (1905-1964), Aberystwyth.
  4. Madog ap Llywelyn - Wikipedia
  5. Anglo-Portuguese Alliance - Wikipedia
  6. "The Treaty of Windsor (1386) in a European context" by Malcom Vale, St. John's College, Oxford
  7. Napoleonic Guide: Quotes of Duke of Wellington
  8. Global Security: Falklands/Malvinas War
  9. Falklands War - Wikipedia
  10. Treaty Clause - Wikipedia
  11. "Treaties and Other International Agreements: The Role of the United States Senate: A Study Prepared for the Committee on Foreign Relations" by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress
  12. "Kubla Khan" by Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1797)
  13. What Does "Kowtow" Mean? by Kallie Szczepanski
  14. Where Was Xanadu? by Kallie Szczepanski
  15. Yuan Dynasty - Wikipedia
  16. Ilkhanate - Wikipedia
  17. Golden Horde - Wikipedia
  18. Chagatai_Khanate - Wikipedia
  19. Gout (Gouty Arthritis): Symptom, Treatment, Causes and more - WebMD
  20. Gout - Wikipedia
  21. "Kublai Khan: Ruler of Mongolia and Yuan China" by Kallie Szczepanski

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