1936

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We Are at the Turning Point

There is a lot to cover this year, but in summary... the United Auto Workers (UAW) becomes a major force in labor with a sit-down strike at GM. The Keynesian economic revolution is underway. Hitler Youth membership soars. Germany and Italy are now 'Axis Powers'. An officer's revolution in Japan has long range repercussions, as war-oriented expansionists take control. The Arab Revolt in Palestine has begun in reaction to the Jewish settlement movement. Hoover Dam is opened. Jesse Owns (a black man) is kicking the backsides of the white, Aryan Nazis at the Summer Olympics in Berlin. This is the first Olympics to be televised. The TV signal will reach the Vega star system, and then Jodie Foster will convince Bill Clinton to build... uh... wait... that was the movie, "Contact". Never mind. The King of England abdicates the throne so that he can play footsie with Mrs. Simpson! (Say no more.) His brother takes the throne, but he has a speech impediment, so his wife arranges for a speech therapist... wait... that is the plot for "The King's Speech". Did that really happen? YES IT DID! Then there is Donald Duck, Pluto the Dog, and the Green Hornet! And finally... [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15]

Germany re-militarizes and invades the Rhineland buffer zone. It is a pathetically weak force at first. World War 2 can be stopped right here, right now, if the French forces act swiftly. The chance is going, going.... gone. Millions are going to die. Nothing short of a miracle can change that now. [16]

When Fascism Fails in Japan...

This will be the second failed revolution in Japan recently, interspersed with assassinations as the mood strikes them. There is a nominal civilian government, but really, the military is running things because they are the only ones considered "clean". Life has been hard during the economic turmoil following the financial crash. Communism has it's charms, but the youth of today are pushing for something better than equal drudgery for all. "The Young Fascists" want reform and they want it now. (I call them "The Young Fascists" because translating the word Kodoha into English is not helpful.) They sympathize with their elders, but they want what they want. On that snowy February night, "The Young Fascists" stage a coup d'état. The Prime Minister escapes, but 150 men break into the home of Admiral Suzuki. He leaps to the closet, looking for his sword. It's gone, so he steps out to meet his attackers unarmed. After trying to reason with them, he finally says, "Go ahead and shoot." He receives several bullets to the head and shoulder, but he remains alive. They kneel, present arms, and leave. Eventually, "The Young Fascists" will surrender, receive trials and be executed. Japan is sick of assassinations, so the grip of military control is now absolute. [17] [18] [19]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Miraculously, Admiral Suzuki survived to fight in the last days of Japan's Empire, but he had been opposed to war with the USA and remained opposed throughout the war. Obviously, "The Young Fascists" were torqued off about several things including the limitations the USA placed on Japan's navy. This goes back to the Russo-Japanese War when Teddy Roosevelt stepped in to negotiated peace. He also imposed limits on Japan's ship building. In essence, the treaty required Japan always to have fewer hulls than the USA and the UK. HOWEVER... the treaty did NOT specify the tonnage. So... instead of a lot of little coastal vessels, Japan built large hulls because each counted as "one". It torqued off the young officers that they had to work around an unfair treaty, and those bad feelings placed them on the opposite side of the USA in World War 2.

Notable Births

  • Antonin Scalia: Supreme Court Justice and conservative intellectual. (I miss him.) [20]
  • John McCain (Living): Vietnam war hero, Senator and presidential candidate. (I'd like to miss him.) [21]
  • James Dobson (Living): Founder of Focus on the Family, psychologist and Christian author. [22]
  • Jorge Bergoglio (Living): Pope Francis in 2013. [23]
  • And in Entertainment...
  • -- Walter Koenig (Living): Star Trek's Pavel Chekov in the original series. [24]
  • -- Burt Reynolds (Living): "Smokey and the Bandit", "The Longest Yard", and posed nude for a Cosmo centerfold. [25]
  • -- Mary Tyler Moore (Living): Star of The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show and co-founder of MTM Enterprises which spawned many TV hits in the 70s and 80s. [26]
  • -- Michael Landon: Best known as Charles Ingalls in Little House on the Prairie, director, producer and actor on several successful series. [27]
  • -- Jim Henson: Creator of the Muppets. He started out in high school making puppets for a local kid's TV program. [28]

**Note: (Living) means they were alive when I checked.

In Other News

  • Liberty Ships are in production. These cargo ships will come to symbolize America's wealth. They are meant to supply the military during war. (Hmmm.) [29] [30]
  • The Japanese Baseball League is established. It will be reorganized into "Nippon Professional Baseball" after the War. [31]
  • The Queen Mary makes her maiden voyage. It is currently a tourist attraction in Long Beach, California. [32]

This Year in Wikipedia

Year 1936, Wikipedia.

See Also

References

  1. The Green Hornet (radio series) - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “The Green Hornet is an American radio adventure series that debuted in 1936 and introduced the character of the Green Hornet, a masked vigilante.”
  2. The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money was written by the English economist John Maynard Keynes. The book, generally considered to be his magnum opus, is largely credited with creating the terminology and shape of modern macroeconomics.[1] Published in February 1936, it sought to bring about a revolution, commonly referred to as the 'Keynesian Revolution', in the way some economists believe.”
  3. Hoover Dam - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “Hoover Dam, once known as Boulder Dam, is a concrete arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border between the U.S. states of Nevada and Arizona. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936 during the Great Depression and was dedicated on September 30, 1935, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Its construction was the result of a massive effort involving thousands of workers, and cost over one hundred lives. The dam was controversially named after President Herbert Hoover.”
  4. 1936 Summer Olympics - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “The 1936 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1936), officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain, on 26 April 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona (two years before the Nazis came to power). It marked the second and final time the International Olympic Committee gathered to vote in a city that was bidding to host those Games.”
  5. Jesse Owens - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “At the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany, Owens won international fame with four gold medals: 100 meters, 200 meters, long jump, and 4 × 100 meter relay. He was the most successful athlete at the games and, as a Black man, was credited with 'single-handedly crushing Hitler's myth of Aryan supremacy', although he 'wasn't invited to the White House to shake hands with the President, either.'”
  6. Donald and Pluto - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “Donald and Pluto is a 1936 animated short film produced by Walt Disney Productions and distributed by United Artists. The film stars Donald Duck, employed as a plumber, and Mickey's dog Pluto as his assistant. The film was directed by Ben Sharpsteen and featured the voice of Clarence Nash as Donald.”
  7. 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “The 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, demanding Arab independence and the end of Jewish immigration as the League of Nations had authorized in 1922.”
  8. Hitler Youth - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “the youth organisation of the Nazi Party in Germany. Its origins dated back to 1922. From 1933 until 1945, it was the sole official youth organisation in Germany and was partially a paramilitary organisation; it was constituted of the Hitler Youth proper for male youth aged 14 to 18, the German youngsters of the Hitler Youth (Deutsches Jungvolk or DJ) for younger boys aged 10 to 14, and the League of German Girls (Band of German Maidens or BDM).”
  9. Wallis Simpson - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “The King's desire to marry a woman who had two living ex-husbands threatened to cause a constitutional crisis in the United Kingdom and the Dominions, and ultimately led to his abdication in December 1936 to marry 'the woman I love'.”
  10. Edward VIII abdication crisis - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “Edward had been introduced to Wallis Simpson, an American citizen and wife of British shipping executive Ernest Aldrich Simpson, by Lady Furness on 10 January 1931. Ernest Simpson was Wallis's second husband; her first marriage, to U.S. Navy pilot Win Spencer, had ended in divorce in 1927. It is generally accepted that Wallis Simpson and the Prince of Wales became lovers in 1934, while Lady Furness (who was also in a relationship with the prince) was visiting relatives in America.”
  11. The King's Speech - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “Robert Logue, a grandson of Lionel, doubted the film's depiction of the speech therapist, stating 'I don't think he ever swore in front of the King and he certainly never called him 'Bertie.[42] Andrew Roberts, an English historian, states that the severity of the King's stammer was exaggerated and the characters of Edward VIII, Wallis Simpson, and George V made more antagonistic than they really were, to increase the dramatic effect.”
  12. Flint sit-down strike - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “The 1936–1937 Flint sit-down strike against General Motors (also known as the General Motors sit-down strike, the great GM sit-down strike, and other variants) changed the United Automobile Workers (UAW) from a collection of isolated locals on the fringes of the industry into a major labor union and led to the unionization of the domestic United States automobile industry.”
  13. Axis powers - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “The Axis grew out of the diplomatic efforts of Germany, Italy, and Japan to secure their own specific expansionist interests in the mid-1930s. The first step was the treaty signed by Germany and Italy in October 1936. Mussolini declared on 1 November that all other European countries would from then on rotate on the Rome–Berlin axis, thus creating the term 'Axis'.[”
  14. Imperial Way Faction - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “At the climax of the Aizawa trial, to reduce tensions on the Tokyo area, the First Infantry Division was ordered from Tokyo to Manchuria. Instead, this caused the situation to escalate further, as the Kōdōha decided that the time was right for direct action, and backed the First Infantry Division in an attempted coup d'état. The failure of this February 26 Incident of 1936 resulted in the almost complete purge of Kōdōha members from top army positions and the resignation of Kōdōha leader Sadao Araki.”
  15. February 26 Incident - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “Unlike earlier examples of political violence by young officers, the coup attempt had severe consequences. After a series of closed trials, 19 of the uprising's leaders were executed for mutiny and another 40 imprisoned. The radical Kōdō-ha faction lost its influence within the army, the period of 'government by assassination' came to a close, and the military increased its control over the civilian government.”
  16. Remilitarization of the Rhineland - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “The remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March 1936 when German military forces entered the Rhineland. This was significant because it violated the terms of the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Treaties, marking the first time since the end of World War I that German troops had been in this region. The remilitarization changed the balance of power in Europe from France towards Germany, and made it possible for Germany to pursue a policy of aggression in Eastern Europe that the demilitarized status of the Rhineland had blocked until then.”
  17. February 26 Incident - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “Unlike earlier examples of political violence by young officers, the coup attempt had severe consequences. After a series of closed trials, 19 of the uprising's leaders were executed for mutiny and another 40 imprisoned. The radical Kōdō-ha faction lost its influence within the army, the period of 'government by assassination' came to a close, and the military increased its control over the civilian government.”
  18. Toland, John Willard. Rising Sun: Volume 1, the Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire, 1936-1945, The. Random House, 15-21. 
  19. Kantarō Suzuki - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 23 January 2017. “Suzuki narrowly escaped assassination in the February 26 Incident in 1936; the would-be assassin's bullet remained inside Suzuki for the rest of his life, and was only revealed upon his cremation. Suzuki was opposed to Japan's war with the United States, before and throughout World War II.”
  20. Antonin Scalia - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016. Appointed to the Court by President Ronald Reagan in 1986, Scalia was described as the intellectual anchor for the originalist and textualist position in the Court's conservative wing.”
  21. John McCain - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “the senior United States Senator from Arizona. He served as the Republican presidential nominee for the 2008 United States presidential election.”
  22. James Dobson - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “an American evangelical Christian author, psychologist, and founder in 1977 of Focus on the Family (FOTF), which he led until 2003. In the 1980s he was ranked as one of the most influential spokesmen for conservative social positions in American public life.[1] Although never an ordained minister, he was called 'the nation's most influential evangelical leader' by The New York Times while Slate portrayed him as a successor to evangelical leaders Jerry Falwell and Pat Robertson.”
  23. Pope Francis - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “Pope Francis (born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio as Bishop of Rome, and sovereign of Vatican City. He chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Francis is the first Jesuit pope, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere and the first pope from outside Europe since Syrian Gregory III, who died in 741.”
  24. Walter Koenig - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “an American actor, writer, teacher and director, known for his roles as Pavel Chekov in Star Trek and Alfred Bester in the Babylon 5 series.”
  25. Burt Reynolds nude: 10 facts about the Cosmo centrefold - BBC News. bbc.com (April 30, 2012). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “It's 40 years since a nude Cosmopolitan centrefold of actor Burt Reynolds broke a taboo and launched a new era of women's magazine publishing.”
  26. Mary Tyler Moore - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “an American actress, known for her roles in the television sitcoms The Mary Tyler Moore Show (1970–1977), in which she starred as Mary Richards, a thirty-something single woman who worked as a local news producer in Minneapolis; and The Dick Van Dyke Show (1961–1966), in which she played Laura Petrie, a former dancer turned Westchester homemaker, wife and mother.”
  27. Michael Landon - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “an American actor, writer, director, and producer. He is known for his roles as Little Joe Cartwright in Bonanza (1959–73), Charles Ingalls in Little House on the Prairie (1974–83), and Jonathan Smith in Highway to Heaven (1984–89). Landon appeared on the cover of TV Guide 22 times, second only to Lucille Ball.”
  28. Jim Henson - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 22 January 2017. “In 1954, while attending Northwestern High School, he began working for WTOP-TV (now WUSA-TV), creating puppets for a Saturday morning children's show called The Junior Morning Show.”
  29. Liberty ship - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 20 January 2017. “In 1936, the American Merchant Marine Act was passed to subsidize the annual construction of 50 commercial merchant vessels which could be used in wartime by the United States Navy as naval auxiliaries, crewed by U.S. Merchant Mariners. The number was doubled in 1939 and again in 1940 to 200 ships a year. Ship types included two tankers and three types of merchant vessel, all to be powered by steam turbines. Limited industrial capacity, especially for reduction gears, meant that relatively few of these ships were built.”
  30. Merchant Marine Act of 1936 - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 20 January 2017. “Its purpose is 'to further the development and maintenance of an adequate and well-balanced American merchant marine, to promote the commerce of the United States, to aid in the national defense, to repeal certain former legislation, and for other purposes.'”
  31. Nippon Professional Baseball - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 23 January 2017. “From 1936–1950, professional baseball in Japan was under the name of the Japanese Baseball League (JBL). The league's dominant team during this period was the Tokyo Kyojin, which won nine league championships, including six in a row from 1938–1943. (The team was officially renamed the Yomiuri Giants in 1947.)”
  32. RMS Queen Mary - Wikipedia (2017). Retrieved on 23 January 2017. “When she sailed on her maiden voyage from Southampton, England on 27 May 1936, she was commanded by Sir Edgar T. Britten, who had been the master designate for Cunard White Star whilst the ship was under construction at the John Brown shipyard. Queen Mary had a 80,774 gross tonnage (GT). Her rival Normandie, which originally grossed 79,280 tonnes, had been modified the preceding winter to increase her size to 83,243 GT (an enclosed tourist lounge was built on the aft boat deck on the area where the game court was), and therefore kept the title of the world's largest ocean liner. Queen Mary sailed at high speeds for most of her maiden voyage to New York, until heavy fog forced a reduction of speed on the final day of the crossing, arriving in New York Harbor on June 1.”

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