1918

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A World Transformed by War and Peace

The end of the Great War is characterized by technological innovation, rebellion, and the passing of an lackluster aristocracy. The German "Red Baron" makes his name with 80 victories, many of them in his Fokker (FOCK-er) Triplane until he is shot down by Canadian Roy Brown in his Sopwith Camel. The Ukrainian People's Republic is independent for less than a year. 800 sailors of the Austrian-Hungarian Navy mutiny. Lithuania goes through formal procedures for independence. Russia is tied up in its October Revolution. Estonia declares it's independence and then loses it as German forces advance. Then Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, plus parts of Eastern Turkey become independent. British forces capture Nazareth, Haifa and Jericho. The Kaiser is pushed aside. The German military is now in charge. In one last push before the Americans can overwhelm them, the Germans launch their Spring Offensive, but they outrun their own supply lines. By that time over a million fresh American troops throw their weight against the line and push hard. By November, defeat is certain. The German public is in full rebellion. The German naval leadership is on a "death ride", but German sailors refuse to cooperate. Finally, the Kaiser abdicates and flees to the Netherlands. Germany is a republic. At "the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" a truce is declared. It is Armistice Day. Peace talks will begin next year, but generally speaking, this war is over... for now. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
The German military retreated in good order which allowed them to contend that they had not been defeated. The German public believed that they had been "stabbed in the back" by the government leadership, the Jews and the Bolsheviks. The antisemitic novel, "The Sin Against the Blood" became a best seller in Germany that year. President Woodrow Wilson imposed his idealistic, progressive will on the Paris Peace Talks. The Versailles Treaty imposed ruinous requirements on Germany, and set up the conditions for World War 2. Armistice Day became a US national holiday. It was renamed "Veteran's Day" in 1954. [13] [14]

The Spanish Influenza Begins in Kansas

If you look up "middle-of-nowhere" in the dictionary, you will see a picture of Haskell County, Kansas. A violent influenza outbreak begins in January or February. Dr. Miner is the county coroner. He reports on the outbreak of flu as "an influenza of a severe type." These are the earliest documented cases. His reports are unusual because flu is not one of the diseases that are tracked nationally, but it strikes so quickly and violently that Dr. Miner feels compelled to report it. The outbreak probably would have burned out there except that several soldiers come home on leave before shipping out. They carry the disease to Camp Funston, and from there it travels to Europe. By May, Madrid headlines are reporting on the deadly influenza outbreak. That is how it gets the name "Spanish Flu". Three to five percent of the world population will be wiped out in the next two years. Most of the deaths will occur in the 16 weeks beginning in mid-September of this year. It hits young adults the hardest by causing an overreaction of the immune system. Elderly people and those with weaker immune systems are safer. [15] [16] [17] [18]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Kansas is one of the proposed sites for the original outbreak, but there are other credible theories on where it might have begun, including Camp Funston at Fort Riley, Kansas, France and even Spain! The disease tracking disciplines of the modern day did not exist back then, so tracing its origins is nearly impossible. Wherever it started, it reached Haskell County, Kansas early on. Today it has a population of less than 5,000. If you think that relative isolation makes you safe from one of these pandemics, think again.

Notable Births

  • Billy Graham (Christian evangelist, spiritual advisor to 3 Presidents, countless Christian pastors and Glenn Beck.) [19] [20] [21]
  • Oral Roberts (First televangelist and founder of Oral Roberts University.) [22]
  • Sam Walton (Founder of Wal-Mart and Sam's Club.) [23]
  • Paul Harvey (Radio personality of Paul Harvey News and The Rest of the Story.) [24]
  • Mike Wallace (Correspondent for 60 Minutes and father of Fox News Sunday host, Chris Wallace) [25]
  • Nelson Mandela (Anti-apartheid revolutionary, and President of South Africa.) [26]
  • Betty Ford (First Lady and co-founder of the Betty Ford Center, a drug and alcohol rehab center.) [27]
  • Gamal Abdel Nassar (President of Egypt, will nationalize the Suez Canal, and begin the modernization of Egypt.) [28]

In Other News

  • The first cruise missile is developed. This automatic airplane delivers a bomb, but development stalls when peace breaks out. [29]
  • "Wild Bill" Donovan receives the Medal of Honor. He will found the OSS which will become the CIA. [30]
  • The Sedition Act forbids criticism of the US government. This includes observing that Germany is not a credible threat to the USA. The Supreme Court upholds this law. [31]

This Year in Wikipedia

Year 1918, Wikipedia.

See Also

References

  1. Carter, Miranda. George, Nicholas and Wilhelm: Three Royal Cousins and the Road to World War I. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 9781400043637. “When at the end of the war, in November 1918, the naval chiefs tried to organize a last "death ride," the sailors mutinied. "The Navy has deserted me," Wilhelm sniffed as he boarded his train out of Germany. "I no longer have a Navy."” 
  2. Fokker Dr.I (Fokker Triplane) - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  3. Anthony Fokker: Involvement in World War I - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  4. Manfred von Richthofen - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  5. Ukrainian People's Republic - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 19 December 2016. “Between April and December 1918 the Ukrainian People's Republic did not function, having been overthrown by the Ukrainian State of Pavlo Skoropadsky. From autumn 1919 the UNR operated as an ally of the Second Polish Republic, but by then the state de facto no longer existed. The 18 March 1921 Treaty of Riga between the Second Polish Republic, Soviet Russia (acting also on behalf of Soviet Belarus) and Soviet Ukraine sealed the fate of the Ukrainian People's Republic.”
  6. Cattaro Mutiny - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 19 December 2016. “As World War I progressed, the cumulative effects of wartime economic and social disorganization became pervasive and the discipline of Austro-Hungarian soldiers faded away. Hunger, cold and pointless drills resulted in complaints, desertions and strikes. Revolutionary propaganda fuelled by the example of the Russian Revolution spread among soldiers and workers.”
  7. Act of Independence of Lithuania - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 19 December 2016. “The Act of February 16, 1918, is the legal basis for the existence of present-day Lithuania, both during the interwar period and since 1990. The Act became one of the key elements during the restoration of Lithuania's independence from the Soviet Union in 1990.”
  8. Estonian Declaration of Independence - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 19 December 2016. “During World War I, between retreating Russian and advancing German troops, the Occupation of Estonia by German Empire nearing, the Salvation Committee of the Estonian National Council, Maapäev, declared the independence of Estonia on 24 February 1918. However, the German forces did not recognize this declaration. After the German Revolution, between 11 and 14 November 1918 the representatives of Germany formally handed over political power in Estonia to the national government.”
  9. Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 19 December 2016. “The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (22 April – 28 May 1918), also known as the Transcaucasian Federation, was a short-lived South Caucasian state extending across what are now the modern-day countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, plus parts of Eastern Turkey.”
  10. Battle of Nazareth - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 19 December 2016. “The Battle of Nazareth began on 20 September 1918, during the Battle of Sharon, which together with the Battle of Nablus formed the set piece Battle of Megiddo fought during the last months of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.”
  11. Spring Offensive - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 19 December 2016. “This Hundred Days Offensive resulted in the Germans retreating or being driven from all of the ground taken in the Spring Offensive, the collapse of the Hindenburg Line and the capitulation of the German Empire that November.”
  12. German Revolution of 1918–19 - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 19 December 2016. “The German Revolution or November Revolution was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of Germany's Imperial government with a republic. The revolutionary period lasted from November 1918 until the establishment in August 1919 of a republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.”
  13. Die Suende wider das Blut (German). Internet Archive (2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016. “(From Google Translate...) The father was sentenced to prison. But the heirs of the Jew were inexorable. The good came under the hammer, the mother died of sorrow and grief, and when the father learned of her death in prison, he hanged himself at the window-cross. The three younger brothers were scattered all over the world. But the youngest, the beautiful blonde sixteen-year-old Grethel, the image of the mother, went to the city to find a place of service. When she gave life to a child, and her seducer, who had promised her marriage, she went into the water. (drowned herself)”
  14. Veterans Day - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 19 December 2016. “Veterans Day is an official United States public holiday, observed annually on November 11, that honors military veterans; that is, persons who served in the United States Armed Forces. It coincides with other holidays, including Armistice Day and Remembrance Day, celebrated in other countries that mark the anniversary of the end of World War I; major hostilities of World War I were formally ended at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, when the Armistice with Germany went into effect. The United States previously observed Armistice Day. The U.S. holiday was renamed Veterans Day in 1954.”
  15. Cantor, Norman F., In the Wake of the Plague: The Black Death and the World It Made, Harper Perennial, 2001. p. 7. (BOOK)
  16. Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague in History, The. Viking. ISBN 0670894737. “In the first six months of 1918, Miner's warning of 'influenza of a severe type' was the only reference in that journal to influenza anywhere in the world.” 
  17. Barry, John M. (2004). "The site of origin of the 1918 influenza pandemic and its public health implications". Journal of Translational Medicine. http://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1479-5876-2-3. Retrieved 19 December 2016. "The 1918–1919 influenza pandemic killed more people than any other outbreak of disease in human history. The lowest estimate of the death toll is 21 million, while recent scholarship estimates from 50 to 100 million dead. World population was then only 28% what is today, and most deaths occurred in a sixteen week period, from mid-September to mid-December of 1918.". 
  18. 1918 flu pandemic - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 19 December 2016. “The second wave of the 1918 pandemic was much deadlier than the first. The first wave had resembled typical flu epidemics; those most at risk were the sick and elderly, while younger, healthier people recovered easily. But in August, when the second wave began in France, Sierra Leone and the United States, the virus had mutated to a much deadlier form.”
  19. Billy Graham - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016. “Graham was a spiritual adviser to American presidents; he was particularly close to Dwight D. Eisenhower, Lyndon B. Johnson (one of Graham's closest friends) and Richard Nixon. He insisted on integration for his revivals and crusades in 1953 and invited Martin Luther King, Jr. to preach jointly at a revival in New York City in 1957. Graham bailed King out of jail in the 1960s when King was arrested in demonstrations. He was also lifelong friends with another televangelist, Robert H. Schuller, whom Graham talked into doing his own television ministry.”
  20. Glenn Beck Meets with Billy Graham - Gleanings - Christianity Today (2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016. “A few weeks ago, Christianity Today posted an interview where Graham suggested he wishes he had stayed out of politics.”
  21. Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. Simon and Schuster, 472-475. 
  22. Oral Roberts - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016. “As one of the best-known and controversial American religious leaders of the 20th century, Roberts's preaching emphasized seed-faith.[5] His ministries reached millions of followers worldwide spanning a period of over six decades.[6] His healing ministry and bringing American Pentecostalism into the mainstream had the most impact,[7] but he also pioneered TV evangelism and laid the foundations of the prosperity gospel[6] and abundant life teachings.”
  23. Sam Walton - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016. “Samuel Moore 'Sam' Walton (March 29, 1918 – April 5, 1992) was an American businessman and entrepreneur best known for founding the retailers Walmart and Sam's Club.”
  24. Paul Harvey - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016. “From the 1950s through the 1990s, Harvey's programs reached as many as 24 million people a week. Paul Harvey News was carried on 1,200 radio stations, 400 Armed Forces Network stations and 300 newspapers.”
  25. Mike Wallace - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016. “...an American journalist, game show host, actor and media personality. He interviewed a wide range of prominent newsmakers during his sixty-year career. He was one of the original correspondents for CBS' 60 Minutes, which debuted in 1968. Wallace retired as a regular full-time correspondent in 2006”
  26. Nelson Mandela - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016. “Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election.”
  27. Betty Ford Center - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016. “Betty Ford's decision to undertake such a project followed on the heels of her own battle with alcohol dependence and diazepam addiction[4] and release from the Long Beach Naval Hospital.”
  28. Gamal Abdel Nasser - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016. “Nasser led the 1952 overthrow of the monarchy and introduced far-reaching land reforms the following year. Following a 1954 attempt on his life by a Muslim Brotherhood member, he cracked down on the organization, put President Muhammad Naguib under house arrest, and assumed executive office, officially becoming president in June 1956.”
  29. Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 19 December 2016. “Despite the success of the stabilization gear, there was doubt in the Navy about the program, and they asked Carl Norden to review the Sperry components and recommend improvement. The navy was, by now, satisfied with the concept, and was contemplating purchasing such equipment on its own, apart from the Sperrys. Elmer Sperry tried to stir up enthusiasm again, calling the concept of the flying bomb the 'gun of the future'. This was to no avail, however. World War I came to a close when the Armistice was signed on November 11, 1918. Almost a hundred flights had been flown in the N-9, but almost all of these were in the N-9s and had a safety pilot on board. The Navy took complete control of the program from Sperry, spelling the end of the Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane.”
  30. William J. Donovan - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 19 December 2016. “In 1942, the COI became the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and Donovan was returned to active duty in the U.S. Army in his World War I rank of colonel. He was promoted to brigadier general in March 1943 and to major general in November 1944. Under his leadership the OSS would eventually conduct successful espionage and sabotage operations in Europe and parts of Asia, but continued to be kept out of South America as a result of Hoover's hostility to Donovan. In addition, the OSS was blocked from the Philippines by the antipathy of General Douglas MacArthur, the commander of the Southwest Pacific Theater.”
  31. Sedition Act of 1918 - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 19 December 2016. “The Sedition Act of 1918 (Pub.L. 65–150, 40 Stat. 553, enacted May 16, 1918) was an Act of the United States Congress that extended the Espionage Act of 1917 to cover a broader range of offenses, notably speech and the expression of opinion that cast the government or the war effort in a negative light or interfered with the sale of government bonds.”

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