Albert Einstein's 'Miracle Year'
Albert Einstein's theories this year will make possible GPS devices, night vision goggles, and the atomic bomb. These inventions won't be realized this year, but the theories behind these inventions are presented in what will be called Einstein's Miracle Year. He points out that light is made up of photons and when they hit metal, an electric charge is produced. Someone will realize that infrared photons can produce such a photoelectric effect and the resulting electric charge can be projected onto your night goggles. Next, Einstein's equation: E=Mc2 (E equals M C squared) means that matter can be turned into energy. According to the movie "Back to the Future" you can throw your garbage into your "Mr. Fusion" and generate enough energy to power your time machine, but that won't happen until 2015. (I think I missed it.) During World War 2, Einstein will suggest that a chain reaction of heavy elements can release a frightening amount of energy from matter. Thus, the Manhattan Project will be born. And finally, the theory of relativity will help in the use of a GPS device. A GPS device measures signal bounce between satellites to within 20 or 30 nano-seconds. However, relativity informs us that we experience time at different rates relative to each other, and depending on how fast we are traveling. (When you fly in a jet you can measure the time difference with an atomic clock, so it's real.) It is enough of a difference that it interferes with GPS time measurement. Relativity explains the problem whereas classical theories do not.    
Bloody Sunday and the Rise of Socialism
A lot of people died on that Sunday. Estimates on the body count vary: 132 is the official death count, but many people were stabbed or trampled. Call it 1,000 dead or wounded total. It starts when Father Gapon leads his followers to the Winter Palace at St. Petersburg, Russia to present a petition of grievances to Tsar Nicolas the 2nd. (He's not home.) A general strike has shut down the city. Normally, the workers would organize a petition and submit it to the petitions office or directly to the Tsar. Father Gapon notifies the Palace that they are coming. No threats. So why did the workers think the Tsar would care about their problems? The Tsar's grandfather had freed the serfs, and they see the current Tsar as their champion. When the ex-serfs took jobs in the city, they found the work gueling. Father Gapon formed an organization called The Assembly that informs employers of problems in the workplace and negotiates solutions. No violence is expected, but a series of assassination attempts have made the Imperial Guard jumpy. Frankly, the Guard seems of two minds, sometimes helping the protestors as they head for the public square, other times chopping them down with sabers. Chaos reigns. Now Father Gapon must leave Russia.   
- Donald Trump's father. (Real estate developer Fred Trump is born in Queens to German immigrants.) 
- Ayan Rand (The author of "Atlas Shrugged" is born in Saint Petersburg.) 
In Other News
- Las Vegas is founded. The 110 acres purchased this year will become the downtown area. 
- Mata Hari dances her way to fame. Apparently, "fame" does not require much clothing. In 12 more years she will be shot for spying for Germany. 
- SCOTUS finds the 60-hour work week to be unconstitutional. Laws limiting the work week to 60 hours violate the right of "freedom of contract". 
This Year in Wikipedia
Year 1905, Wikipedia.
- GPS and Relativity. astronomy.ohio-state.edu (2016). Retrieved on 25 November 2016. “To achieve this level of precision, the clock ticks from the GPS satellites must be known to an accuracy of 20-30 nanoseconds. However, because the satellites are constantly moving relative to observers on the Earth, effects predicted by the Special and General theories of Relativity must be taken into account to achieve the desired 20-30 nanosecond accuracy.”
- Cosmological constant - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 25 November 2016. “In cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda) is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space. It was originally introduced by Albert Einstein in 1917 as an addition to his theory of general relativity to 'hold back gravity' and achieve a static universe, which was the accepted view at the time. Einstein abandoned the concept after Hubble's 1929 discovery that all galaxies outside the Local Group (the group that contains the Milky Way Galaxy) are moving away from each other, implying an overall expanding universe. From 1929 until the early 1990s, most cosmology researchers assumed the cosmological constant to be zero. Since the 1990s, several developments in observational cosmology, especially the discovery of the accelerating universe from distant supernovae in 1998 (in addition to independent evidence from the cosmic microwave background and large galaxy redshift surveys), have shown that around 68% of the mass–energy density of the universe can be attributed to dark energy. While dark energy is poorly understood at a fundamental level, the main required properties of dark energy are that it functions as a type of anti-gravity, it dilutes much more slowly than matter as the universe expands, and it clusters much more weakly than matter, or perhaps not at all. The cosmological constant is the simplest possible form of dark energy since it is constant in both space and time, and this leads to the current standard model of cosmology known as the Lambda-CDM model, which provides a good fit to many cosmological observations as of 2016.”
- Edwin Hubble - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 25 November 2016. “In 1929, Hubble examined the relation between distance and redshift of galaxies. Combining his measurements of galaxy distances with measurements of the redshifts of the galaxies by Vesto Slipher, and by his assistant Milton L. Humason, he found a roughly linear relation between the distances of the galaxies and their redshifts, a discovery that later became known as Hubble's law. Yet the reason for the redshift remained unclear. It was Georges Lemaître, a Belgian Catholic priest and physicist, who found that Hubble's observations supported the Friedmann model of an expanding universe based on Einstein's equations for General Relativity, which is now known as the Big Bang theory.”
- Rovelli, Carlo. Seven Brief Lessons on Physics. Riverhead Books.
- Walter Isaacson. Einstein: His Life and Universe. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780743264730.
- Sebag-Montefiore, Simon. Romanovs 1613-1918, The. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 9781101946978. “On 2 February 1905 the hit squad was ready as the grand duke's carriage arrived at the Bolshoi Theatre. The terrorist was about to give the signal to the bombers when he saw that Ella and the children were with the grand duke. On the 4th, the terrorists observed Sergei's coachman waiting outside his palace. As the carriage rolled through the Kremlin, an assassin tossed his bomb from four feet away. Nothing was left except the back wheels of the carriage. Sergei's head, shoulders, one leg and one arm were vaporized and never found.”
- Bloody Sunday (1905) - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
- Revolution of 1905 - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
- Russian Constitution of 1906 - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
- Fred Trump - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 25 November 2016. “Born in the neighborhood of Woodhaven, Queens, New York City, Trump was one of three children of German emigrants Elizabeth (née Christ) and Frederick Trump, along with his brother John and sister Elizabeth Trump Walters (1904–1961). His father Frederick Trump had immigrated to New York City in 1885 from the small German town of Kallstadt, Rhineland-Palatinate, where he returned in 1901 and married in 1902, and from where he re-emigrated (to the Bronx) that same year. Frederick Trump's name was recorded as Trumpf when he migrated to the USA, which was later changed to Trump.”
- Ayn Rand - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 25 November 2016. “Rand was born Alisa Zinov'yevna Rosenbaum (Russian: Али́са Зиновьевна Розенбаум) on February 2, 1905, to a Russian-Jewish bourgeois family living in Saint Petersburg. She was the eldest of the three daughters of Zinovy Zakharovich Rosenbaum and his wife, Anna Borisovna (née Kaplan), largely non-observant Jews.”
- Pat Brown - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 25 November 2016. “32nd Governor of California In office January 5, 1959 – January 2, 1967”
- Jerry Brown - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 25 November 2016. “34th and 39th Governor of California Incumbent Assumed office January 3, 2011”
- Las Vegas - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 25 November 2016. “Las Vegas was founded as a city in 1905, when 110 acres (45 ha) of land adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad tracks were auctioned in what would become the downtown area. In 1911, Las Vegas was incorporated as a city.”
- Mata Hari - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 25 November 2016. “Promiscuous, flirtatious, and openly flaunting her body, Mata Hari captivated her audiences and was an overnight success from the debut of her act at the Musée Guimet on 13 March 1905. She became the long-time mistress of the millionaire Lyon industrialist Émile Étienne Guimet, who had founded the Musée.”
- Lochner v. New York - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 25 November 2016. “A majority of five judges held that a New York law, that bakery employee hours had to be under 10 hours a day and 60 hours a week, violated the due process clause, which in their view contained a right of 'freedom of contract'. They said there was 'unreasonable, unnecessary and arbitrary interference with the right and liberty of the individual to contract.'”