1885

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The Chinese are Massacred

Chinese miners have done reasonably well financially in the USA and Australia. They are not getting wildly rich, but they are supporting themselves. They work hard, and they work for less money. In Wyoming, the trouble starts when the Knights of Labor (an early labor union) initiates a miners strike against Union Pacific Coal. After 2 weeks, the company replaces the white workers with Chinese. The Chinese population in Rock Springs, Wyoming soars but after the passage of the Chinese Immigration Exclusion Act the local chapter of the Knights of Labor want the Chinese booted out of town because they are driving down wages. (To be fair, everyone's wages are pretty low.) Several white miners arrive at pit number 6 and tell the Chinese miners to move off. A fight ensues and one Chinese miner is killed. A work stoppage begins and by that afternoon, 150 white men are marching on Chinatown. Shots are fired and the Chinese attempt to flee. Chinese people are beaten, robbed, shot and burned inside their homes. Troops are called in and when the Chinese are escorted back to town a week later, bodies remain out in the open eaten by dogs. The property damage alone reaches almost 4 million in 2015 dollars and no one is prosecuted since (according to the Grand Jury) no witnesses saw anyone commit any crime. The Federal government will make restitution for the property damage... eventually. [1] [2] [3]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Given that a miner's wages in those days was darn near slave wages, it is easy to see why union miners might get riled up when some miners continue to work during a strike. Racism was also part of it, but there was the observation that the Chinese kept to themselves. From my personal perspective, this seems fine, but I've seen people get upset when certain ethnic groups seem clannish. Skin color is an easy identifier, but how one dresses is also a factor. Prior to the anti-Chinese riots, most Protestant clergy were pro-Chinese, but one prominent clergyman was not. His complaint was that the Chinese were not converting to Christianity; they dressed in an odd fashion and they wore that pigtail called a "cue". At first this seemed laughable to his fellow clergymen, but after the Chinese Exclusion Act that prohibited Chinese immigration, the pro-Chinese clergy could no longer get traction. It is that same feeling you get when you shout "But it's against the Constitution!" ... and all you hear are crickets. It is the correct argument, but no one seems to care, and you know something is fundamentally wrong. [4]

Pasteur and the Rabies Vaccine

I'm not a doctor but rabies is usually caught when you are bitten by an animal that is carrying the disease. The animal seems crazed and often furious. This is when a bite can occur. As the disease progresses there is a need for water, but the patient seems fearful of any water you might offer him. (Due to muscle spasms in the throat, they often fear choking.) Thus rabies is also called "hydrophobia" which means "fear of water". Prior to this year the disease is almost always fatal. In fact, some people simply kill themselves if they are bitten whether they actually present symptoms or not. That is how fearful people can be of this disease. Dr. Louis Pasteur and another French doctor administer a rabies vaccine to a nine-year-old boy who has been mauled by a rabid dog. The boy lives. Thus, there is a method for saving an individual from death from rabies. However, the vaccine must be administered BEFORE symptoms occur. Afterwards... well... the chances of survival AFTER symptoms present themselves are low even in the modern day. [5] [6]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
This is a medical miracle that is critically important, but Pasteur was using live virus that was weakened considerably. Exactly how considerably and how exactly he did it, I'm not going to say. The procedure seems sort of crazy to me but heck... it was Pasteur... and people were going to die anyway so they were willing to try anything. If he tried this today he would be arrested. In fact, many medicines that we think of as common would never have made it to market in today's environment... like aspirin... for example. When you look at all the drug interaction warnings, the possible side effects and possible aspirin poisoning, it is a wonder that a pharmacy would sell it to you at all. But by 1899 Bayer was selling aspirin like it was going out of style. It has since met competition from other over-the-counter drugs that work in a similar manner, but even these have their warnings on the label. Every body is different so use care. Even natural products can produce side effects. FYI, the word "natural" is not the same as "safe" or even "good". [7]

In Other News

  • Bicycle playing cards are introduced. [8] [9] [10]
  • The popcorn machine is invented. A peanut roaster is modified to automatically pop popcorn. [11] [12]
  • Dr. Pepper is patented. I've been to the Dr. Pepper museum in Waco, Texas. The Texas Ranger Museum is better. [13]

This Year in Wikipedia

Year 1885, Wikipedia.

See Also

References

  1. Seager, Robert, II (February 1959). "Some Denominational Reactions to Chinese Immigration to California, 1856-1892". Pacific Historical Review (University of California Press) 28 (1): 49-66. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3636239. Retrieved 05 October 2016. 
  2. Rock Springs massacre - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 5 October 2016. “Whenever the mob met a Chinese they stopped him and, pointing a weapon at him, asked him if he had any revolver, and then approaching him they searched his person, robbing him of his watch or any gold or silver that he might have about him, before letting him go. Some of the rioters would let a Chinese go after depriving him of all his gold and silver, while another Chinese would be beaten with the butt ends of the weapons before being let go. Some of the rioters, when they could not stop a Chinese, would shoot him dead on the spot, and then search and rob him. Some would overtake a Chinese, throw him down and search and rob him before they would let him go. Some of the rioters would not fire their weapons, but would only use the butt ends to beat the Chinese with. Some would not beat a Chinese, but rob him of whatever he had and let him go, yelling to him to go quickly. Some, who took no part either in beating or robbing the Chinese, stood by, shouting loudly and laughing and clapping their hands.[”
  3. Nokes, R. Gregory (Fall 2006). "A Most Daring Outrage: Murders at Chinese Massacre Cove, 1887". Oregon Historical Quarterly (Oregon Historical Society) 107 (3): 326-353. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20615657. Retrieved 05 October 2016. 
  4. Chinese Exclusion Act - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 5 October 2016. “The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882. It was one of the most significant restrictions on free immigration in US history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. The act followed the Angell Treaty of 1880, a set of revisions to the US-China Burlingame Treaty of 1868 that allowed the US to suspend Chinese immigration. The act was initially intended to last for 10 years, but was renewed in 1892 with the Geary Act and made permanent in 1902.”
  5. Rabies vaccine - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 4 October 2016. “Virtually every infection with rabies resulted in death until two French scientists, Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux, developed the first rabies vaccination in 1885. This vaccine was first used on a human on July 6, 1885, on nine-year-old Joseph Meister (1876–1940), who had been mauled by a rabid dog.”
  6. Hydrophobia - definition of hydrophobia (2016). Retrieved on 5 October 2016. “Word History Hydrophobia is an older term for the disease rabies, and it means 'fear of water.' Because of this name, many people think that rabies makes one afraid of water. In fact, this is not the case (although rabies does cause mental confusion of other kinds). The name hydrophobia comes from the fact that animals and people with rabies get spasms in their throat muscles that are so painful that they cannot eat or drink, and so will refuse water in spite of being very thirsty.”
  7. Aspirin - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 5 October 2016. “In 1897 chemists working at Bayer AG produced a synthetically altered version of salicin, derived from the species Filipendula ulmaria (meadowsweet), which caused less digestive upset than pure salicylic acid. The identity of the lead chemist on this project is a matter of controversy. Bayer states the work was done by chemists Heinrich Dreser and Felix Hoffmann, but Jewish chemist Arthur Eichengrün later claimed he was the lead investigator and records of his contribution were expunged under the anti-Semitic Nazi regime. The new drug, formally acetylsalicylic acid, was named Aspirin by Bayer AG after the original botanical name for meadowsweet, Spiraea ulmaria, derived from 'acetyl' and Spirsäure, an old German name for salicylic acid derived from the Latin Spiraea ulmaria. By 1899, Bayer was selling it around the world.”
  8. Bicycle Playing Cards - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 4 October 2016. “Since 1885, the Bicycle brand has been manufactured by the United States Printing Company, which, in 1894, became the United States Playing Card Company (USPCC) of Cincinnati. 'Bicycle' is a trademark of that company.”
  9. Hanafuda Cards - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  10. Harris, Blake J., Console Wars: Sega, Nintendo, and the Battle that Defined a Generation, It Books, 2014-May-13. ISBN-13: 978-0062276698. "Chapter 5"
  11. Popcorn maker - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 6 July 2016. “It was at this time that Cretors moved his wife and family to Chicago where he felt he could become a commercial success by selling his new machine. It was 1885.”
  12. Cretors - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 6 July 2016. “C. Cretors & Company is an American manufacturing company, specializing in popcorn machines and other concessions equipment. It was established in 1885 with the invention of the first large-scale commercial popcorn machine to pop corn in oil.”
  13. Dr Pepper - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 4 October 2016. “The U.S. Patent Office recognizes December 1, 1885, as the first time Dr Pepper was served.[citation needed] It was introduced nationally in the United States at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition as a new kind of soda pop, made with 23 flavors. Its introduction in 1885 preceded the introduction of Coca-Cola by one year.”

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