Borden's Rules for Dairymen
This is going to sound like a commercial for Bordon's Milk but I'm telling you, what Bordon did for the dairy industry is right up there with pasteurization. A few years ago Gail Borden won a medal at the London World's Fair for his dehydrated "meat biscuit" which ended up being a commercial flop, but as he was returning to the USA he noticed that many children on the voyage fell ill drinking contaminated milk. He set out to solve this problem. Evaporated milk already exists, but he uses a vacuum process that speeds up the process and he patents it this year. Then he gets financing to open a factory and produces canned, evaporated milk, but that is not the whole story. Gail Bordon is a stickler for cleanliness. Remember, there is no germ theory yet. He just wants everything clean. Bordon issues rules for his dairymen to clean the cow's udders before milking, scald all equipment used for processing the milk. All containers holding milk must be covered and even the dairymen themselves should practice good hygiene. His rules become known as the Dairyman's Ten Commandments. This all seems obvious to the modern farmer, but at this point in time the "pasteurization" process won't even be invented until 1865.      
The Caning of Senator Sumner
Republican Senator Charles Sumner has spent two days ridiculing the practice of slavery and mocking Senators Stephen Douglas and Andrew Butler. Kansas is coming apart over the question of slavery. No decent man could support it, and one might infer that Butler and Douglas are not decent men, but there is no need for subtle hints. Sumner is quite clear. Slavery is Butler's harlot and his tongue can say nothing against his mistress. Sumner's "Crime against Kansas" speech comes to a close and the pro-slavery advocates are outraged. A few days later Democrat Congressman Preston Brooks waits for the Senate to close out for the day. Senator Sumner is sitting at his desk on the Senate floor. Brooks walks up to him and begins beating him vigorously with his cane. Sumner has no chance to get up. He trips and his legs are trapped between the table and chair. Blood pours into his eyes and he is temporarily blinded. Other Senators attempt to help, but Democrat Congressman Henry Edmundson brandishes a gun and says, "Let them be." Finally, two Senators pull Brooks back. The cane is left on the floor in bloody pieces. Senator Sumner is alive, but barely. He will return to the Senate in 1859. Congressman Brooks resigns, but is reelected by his constituents. He will die of the croup later this year and never take his seat. There are no limits now. They have tasted blood and it is sweet. 
The First Gay President?
Normally, I wouldn't pay much attention to James Buchanan, but in modern times when President Bill Clinton is called the "first black president " and President Barak Obama is called the "first gay president" then I must talk about whether or not President Buchanan was gay. Certainly he was a life-long bachelor, but that is not definitive proof. He lived with a man, but again, that is not proof. People suspected at the time. Andrew Jackson joked about it, but did anyone really care? I doubt it. There is only one letter that gives us an indication of what Buchanan was thinking. He writes: "I have gone a wooing to several gentlemen, but have not succeeded with any one of them." The full quote is in the notes, but frankly, my attitude is this. I don't care what James Buchanan did or didn't do sexually. I don't care what Bill Clinton is doing right now sexually. In fact, I don't want to know. I just don't care what people do with their genitals unless they are trying to do it with someone against their will. Then I care.   
In Other News
- The first synthetic dye is created by accident. An 18-year-old chemistry student goofs up an experiment and finds a purplish, mauve-colored liquid at the bottom of his beaker. He applies for a patent and the synthetic dye industry is born. 
- The Neandertal Cave Man is discovered. Miners discover bones in a cave in Neander's Hollow in Germany. Thus begins of the search for man as ape. 
- The Great Train Wreck! School children are on an excursion on the "Picnic Train" but they are running 20 minutes late and running headlong into the worst train disaster to date. 126 total dead including the engineer who is blamed for his carelessness. The conductor survives, but he will kill himself later. 
This Year in Wikipedia
Year 1856, Wikipedia.
- Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. Simon and Schuster, 414-415.
- Is there a substitute for evaporated milk? - MyRecipes.com. myrecipes.com (2016). Retrieved on 11 August 2016. “Evaporated milk is milk that has been cooked down to allow some of the water content to evaporate. The concentrate is canned, and the result is a heavier tasting milk with a slightly toasted or caramelized flavor. If you don't have any, make your own: To produce 1 cup of evaporated milk, simmer 2 1/4 cups of regular milk down until it becomes 1 cup.”
- Gail Borden - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 11 August 2016. “In 1856, after three years of refining his model, Borden received the patent for his process of condensing milk by vacuum. At that time, he abandoned the meat biscuit, to focus on his new product.”
- Letter of Gail Borden, jr., to Dr. Ashbel Smith, setting forth an important invention in the preparation of a new article of food, termed meat biscuit;. archive.org (1850). Retrieved on 24 August 2016.
- History - Borden Cheese. friendsofelsie.com (2016). Retrieved on 24 August 2016. “As his business expanded, Gail Borden strived to adhere to the 'Dairyman's Ten Commandments,' the guidelines and standards for barn and herd cleanliness which even today are the basis of many health department regulations. Consequently, Borden would become known as 'the father of the modern dairy industry'. By 1875, thanks to Borden's processes, America could rely on dairy products that would remain wholesome and healthy for long periods of time. In 1885, the company pioneered the use of glass milk bottles. Along the way, the company's products became synonymous with quality.”
- Borden Farm. ulstermagazine.com (2016). Retrieved on 24 August 2016. “Cows and stables that provided milk to his factories had to be clean and well ventilated. Milking utensils were required to be scalded, and milk was to be stored in clean, covered cans. Rules for personal hygiene, temperature and delivery time were also set.”
- Frantz, Joe B. (December 1948). "Gail Borden as a Businessman". Bulletin of the Business Historical Society (The President and Fellows of Harvard College) 22 (4/6): 123-133. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3110879. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- Eagle Brand Company History - Eagle Brand. Eagle Brand Company (OFFICIAL SITE) (2016). Retrieved on 24 August 2016. “Eagle Brand® was introduced in 1856 by Gail Borden to combat food poisoning and other illnesses related to lack of refrigeration and preservation techniques. The Civil War brought Eagle Brand the recognition required to make it a household name. The military needed milk that would keep well and Borden's product filled that need. Additionally, Eagle Brand Sweetened Condensed Milk was credited with significantly lowering the infant mortality rate in North America. Gail Borden's discovery provided milk that would remain safe and wholesome—at that time, an important contribution to the nourishment of infants and children.”
- Caning of Charles Sumner - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 23 August 2016. “On May 22, 1856, in the United States Congress, Representative Preston Brooks (D-SC) attacked Senator Charles Sumner (R-MA), an abolitionist, with a walking cane in retaliation for a speech given by Sumner two days earlier in which he fiercely attacked slaveholders including a relative of Brooks. The beating nearly killed Sumner and it drew a sharply polarized response from the American public on the subject of the expansion of slavery in the United States. It has been considered symbolic of the 'breakdown of reasoned discourse' that eventually led to the American Civil War.”
- Battle of Black Jack - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 24 August 2016. “On May 21, 1856, Henry C. Pate participated with a posse of 750 pro-slavery forces in the sacking of Lawrence, which destroyed the Free State Hotel, two abolitionist newspaper offices and their printing presses. They also looted throughout the village. The next day, Congressman Preston Brooks from South Carolina physically attacked Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts in the Senate chambers with a cane. He continued hitting after the senator was bleeding and unconscious. After that, a band of men, led by John Brown and comrade Captain Shore, executed five proslavery men with broadswords at Pottawatomie Creek. Brown's men let Jerome Glanville and James Harris return home to the cabin of Harris. This incident became known as the Pottawatomie massacre. Following the massacre, three anti-slavery men were taken prisoner, including two of John Brown's sons. On June 2, 1856 Brown and 29 others met Henry Pate and fought the battle of Black Jack. This started after Brown's two sons were captured and held prisoner by Pate. The five-hour battle went in Brown's favor and Pate and 22 of his followers were captured and held for ransom. Brown agreed to release them as long as they released Brown's sons.”
- John Brown (abolitionist) - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 24 August 2016. “During the 1856 conflict in Kansas, Brown commanded forces at the Battle of Black Jack and the Battle of Osawatomie. Brown's followers killed five slavery supporters at Pottawatomie. In 1859, Brown led an unsuccessful raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry that ended with the multi-racial group's capture. Brown's trial resulted in his conviction and a sentence of death by hanging.”
- James Buchanan - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 24 August 2016. “After Coleman's death, Buchanan never courted another woman or seemed to show any emotional or physical interest; a rumor circulated of an affair with President James K. Polk's widow, Sarah Childress Polk, but it had no basis. It has been suggested that Anne's death in fact served to deflect awkward questions about his sexuality and bachelorhood. While his biographers such as Jean Baker argue that Buchanan was asexual or celibate, several writers have put forth arguments that he was homosexual or bisexual, including sociologist James W. Loewen, and authors Robert P. Watson and Shelley Ross.”
- Our real first gay president. Salon.com (2016). Retrieved on 24 August 2016. “I am now 'solitary and alone,' having no companion in the house with me. I have gone a wooing to several gentlemen, but have not succeeded with any one of them. I feel that it is not good for man to be alone; and should not be astonished to find myself married to some old maid who can nurse me when I am sick, provide good dinners for me when I am well, and not expect from me any very ardent or romantic affection.”
- Obama's NOT the first 'gay President', James Buchanan was. Daily Mail (15 May 2012). Retrieved on 24 August 2016. “Newsweek has been slammed for labelling the straight, married, father-of-two President simply to draw attention to itself and increase sales.”
- Mauveine - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 24 August 2016. “In 1856, William Henry Perkin, then age 18, was given a challenge by his professor, August Wilhelm von Hofmann, to synthesize quinine. In one attempt, Perkin oxidized aniline using potassium dichromate, whose toluidine impurities reacted with the aniline and yielded a black solid—suggesting a 'failed' organic synthesis. Cleaning the flask with alcohol, Perkin noticed purple portions of the solution.”
- Neandertal - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 24 August 2016. “However, industrial mining during the 19th and 20th centuries removed almost all of the limestone and dramatically changed the shape of the valley. It was during such a mining operation that the bones of the original Neanderthal man were found in a cave. Neither the cave nor the cliff in which the bones were located still exists.”
- Great Train Wreck of 1856 - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 24 August 2016. “Two trains, traveling on the same track in converging directions, collided, killing between 59 and 67, and injuring over 100. The incident was referred to as The Camp Hill Disaster in Montgomery County, and The Picnic Train Tragedy in the city of Philadelphia. It was the deadliest railroad catastrophe in the world up to that time and became one of the signature events of its era.”