1821

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Attitude Adjustment in Progress

The world is in the midst of a MAJOR revolution in attitude. All that came before is left behind as people realize that they are captains of their own ship. Old government systems have been replaced with new ones. The average age of a person in the United States is 16 years old! The Eastern U.S. states are losing population dramatically as settlers move West to Illinois, Ohio, Tennessee and Kentucky. "Go west, young man!" Land is cheaper and so are cross-Atlantic transportation costs. Religion is undergoing a second revolution. The Mormons are on the rise. The Jews are freed from their ghettos. Church associations and conventions of all kinds are forming, splitting, and reforming. Electromagnetism is discovered. The Ice Age theory is proposed. People who were 20 years old at the end of the Napoleonic Wars (in 1815) will not recognize their world by 1830. I can't give you the full context of the times in these brief segments, but something fundamental in the way people think (especially young people) is changing. [1]

"Go West, young man, go West. There is health in the country, and room away from our crowds of idlers and imbeciles."
-- Horace Greeley's advice to  Josiah Grinnell in 1833. [2]

Tejas is a State of Mind, and a State of Mexico

Spain is losing control over its colonies on the American continent as Argentina and Chile have challenged Spanish forces throughout the South American continent. (Their goal seems to be to kick Spain THE HECK off this rock.) Venezuela has won it's independence, and a "Freedom Expedition" has landed on the shores of Peru. Mexico has also won its independence. Mexico now extends south to the border of Panama and north to include Tejas (TAY-hahs) (which is mostly modern day Texas), Nuevo Mexico (nu-WAY-vo) (which is mostly New Mexico, Colorado and West Texas) and Californias, which is mostly, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and California. Mexico's new President will become its reigning Emperor by next year. It is going to be a very short reign. Then Tejas will be joined with the province of Coahuila (co-ah-WEE-ya) until 1836 when the Republic of Texas will declare its independence. [3] [4]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Since it was near the 4th of July when I wrote this segment, I had been watching the musical comedy "1776". The character of Benjamin Franklin made a joke about the definition of "rebellion" that stuck in my mind. Someone had asked if it was treasonous to rebel against the King of England. (King George the 3rd had declared the American colonies to be in rebellion.) Franklin quipped that rebellion is only treasonous in the third person.... that is... when someone else is doing it against me. When I am rebelling, it is in self-defense against a wrongful government and not treasonous at all. Thus, when Mexico was fighting for it's freedom from Spain, it was a good thing from Mexico's perspective, but when Texas was fighting for its freedom from Mexico, suddenly it was bad thing from Mexico's perspective. It all depends on whose ox is being gored. [5]

Russia, the Pacific Northwest, and the Monroe Doctrine

Russia made exclusive claim to Alaska in 1799, but it didn't do much with it except for the colonization of fur traders. The claim went south to the 55th parallel which is about where modern day Alaska ends. The new claim goes down the Pacific coast to the latitude of North 45 degrees 50 minutes which is a good way into modern day Oregon. Remember that Thomas Jefferson supported the expedition to Oregon that established the American colony of Astoria. It was a trading post for furs but with the War of 1812 looming they sold their interest to a British fur company. The whole thing is now part of Russia. Russia declares that no foreign vessels are allowed within 100 Italian miles of Russian ports. Italian miles vary so call it anywhere from 38 to 57 regular miles. The United Kingdom and United States protest, so the Russians move their claim northward to the 51st parallel which runs through Calgary and British Columbia. [6] [7]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Explorers from many countries had been through the area in question. Certainly the Indians were living there, but this seemingly arbitrary declaration from Tsar Alexander the 1st forced President Monroe to consider what to do. South America and Mexico were fighting to kick Spain out. The US had paid 5 million to buy Spanish Florida and the Louisiana Purchase had removed France. There was a consensus building that foreign colonial powers ought to stay out of the New World. (The UK was not considered a foreign power. Really. I'm not kidding.) Thus, President Monroe began formulating the Monroe Doctrine that would exclude new foreign powers from the New World. Oddly, it took the cooperation of the UK to make it happen because, frankly, the US didn't have the power to enforce such a policy yet. In recent times, the Secretary of State, John F. Kerry, has stated that the "era of the Monroe Doctrine is over". As I recall, Russia sent warships to South America right after that... as a goodwill gesture, no doubt. [8] [9] [10]

In Other News

  • The microphone is invented by Sir Charles Wheatstone. It is different from an electrical microphone but Wheatstone proves that small sounds can be conveyed across a long distance through resonance waves and he coins the word microphone. [11] [12]
  • Faraday builds the first electric motor. Electromagnetism was discovered last year by a Danish scientist. Michael Faraday is experimenting and suddenly he has "electromagnetic rotation". Naturally, he is sidelined for embarrassing his betters. [11] [13] [14]
  • Popcorn is the new snack food for the East Coast! This variety probably came from Chile. In 1885 a fellow will redesign a peanut roaster into the first popcorn machine. [15] [16] [17]

This Year in Wikipedia

Year 1821, Wikipedia.

See Also

References

  1. Johnson, Paul. Birth of the Modern: 1815-1830, The. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 006016574X. “The postwar years saw great and rapid changes in Britain and continental Europe, and still more fundamental ones elsewhere. The United States transformed itself from a struggling ex-colony into a formidable nation, growing fast in territory and population and embracing democratic politics. Russia, too, was expanding fast and at the same time was developing the fatal fissures in her society which were to engulf her in the immense tragedies of the 20th century. In China and Japan also the seeds of future catastrophes were being sown. Latin America came into independent and troubled existence, and the first stirring of modernity were felt in Turkey and Egypt, Southeast Asia, the Middle East and the Balkans. In India the British were moving deeper into the subcontinent and beginning to modernize it. They were breaking out of their coastal enclaves in South Africa and Australia and striking inland. All over the world, the last wildernesses, in the pampas and the steppes, in the Mississippi Valley and Canada, in the Himalayas and the Andes, were being penetrated or settled by the advanced societies, and their peoples were being subdued, in some cases annihilated. Never before or since had so much cheap land become available, and the hungry peoples of Europe were moving overseas in vast numbers to possess it.” 
  2. Go West, young man - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 6 July 2016. “Josiah Bushnell Grinnell claimed in his autobiography that Horace Greeley first addressed the advice to him in 1833, before sending him off to Illinois to report on the Illinois Agricultural State Fair.”
  3. Mexican Texas - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 28 June 2016. “Tejas, in English history books usually referred to as Mexican Texas, was a province of Mexico between 1821 and 1836. Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821 in its war of independence. Initially, Mexican Texas operated very similarly to Spanish Texas. However, the 1824 Constitution of Mexico set up a federal structure, with Tejas joined with the province of Coahuila to form the state of Coahuila y Tejas.”
  4. Expedición Libertadora del Perú - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 6 July 2016. “The Expedición Libertadora del Perú (Freedom Expedition of Peru) was organized in 1820 by the government of Chile, with elements belonging to the Liberating Army of the Andes and to recently restored Army of Chile, whose target was to free the Viceroyalty of Perú from Spanish rule.”
  5. 1776 (1972) - IMDb. imdb.com (2016). Retrieved on 6 July 2016. “A musical retelling of the American Revolution's political struggle in the Continental Congress to declare independence.”
  6. Ukase of 1821 - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 6 July 2016. “The ukase was declared on September 4, 1821.[1] Its first section stated that 'the pursuits of commerce, whaling, fishing and other industry, on all islands, ports and gulfs, including the whole north-west coast of North America to the 45°50′ north latitude, are all included in this edict for the purpose of granting the same exclusivity to Russian subjects'. The second section 'prohibits all foreign vessels not only from landing on the coasts and islands belonging to Russia, but, also, does not permit them to approach these islands and coasts within less than one hundred Italian miles, without the vessels being subject to confiscation, along with the whole cargo' (one Italian mile was 2,025 yards).”
  7. Ukase of 1799 - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 6 July 2016. “The Ukase of 1799 (Russian: Указ 1799 года) was a decree of Tsar Paul I issued on 8 July 1799 which claimed a southern border of Russian America along the 55th parallel north.”
  8. Johnson, Paul. Birth of the Modern: 1815-1830, The. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 006016574X. “But Britain was never to admit the doctrine in this sense. As George Canning, who succeeded Castlereagh as Foreign Secretary, told the amiable Richard Rush, now U.S. minister in London: “If we were to be repelled from the shores of America, it would not matter to us whether that repulsion was effected by the ukase of Russia excluding us from the sea, or by the new doctrine of [the United States] excluding us from the land. But we cannot yield obedience to either.” In fact, most Americans tacitly conceded that the British were not in the same category as the other European powers.” 
  9. Cuban Alliance with Russia Highlights Moscow’s Influence in Latin America - Washington Free Beacon. freebeacon.com (October 27, 2015). Retrieved on 6 July 2016. “Russian President Vladimir Putin’s government has furnished countries in the Bolivarian Alliance with substantial support, Farah said, including 'weapons, police and military training and equipment, intelligence technology and training, nuclear technology, oil exploration equipment, financial assistance, and an influential friend on the United Nations Security Council and other international forums.'”
  10. BERMAN: Russia pivots toward Cuba, Venezuela, Nicaragua. Washington Times (March 26, 2014). Retrieved on 6 July 2016. “Last fall, Secretary of State John F. Kerry announced with great fanfare that the 'era of the Monroe Doctrine is over,' effectively serving notice to foreign powers that the United States has no plans to contest or compete with their growing influence south of our border.”
  11. 11.0 11.1 Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. Simon and Schuster, 386-387. 
  12. Charles Wheatstone - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 6 July 2016. “Besides transmitting sounds to a distance, Wheatstone devised a simple instrument for augmenting feeble sounds, to which he gave the name of 'Microphone.' It consisted of two slender rods, which conveyed the mechanical vibrations to both ears, and is quite different from the electrical microphone of Professor Hughes.”
  13. Hans Christian Ørsted - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 6 July 2016. “On 21 April 1820, during a lecture, Ørsted noticed a compass needle deflected from magnetic north when an electric current from a battery was switched on and off, confirming a direct relationship between electricity and magnetism.”
  14. Homopolar motor - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 6 July 2016. “The homopolar motor was the first electrical motor to be built. Its operation was demonstrated by Michael Faraday in 1821 at the Royal Institution in London.”
  15. Popcorn maker - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 6 July 2016. “It was at this time that Cretors moved his wife and family to Chicago where he felt he could become a commercial success by selling his new machine. It was 1885.”
  16. Cretors - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 6 July 2016. “C. Cretors & Company is an American manufacturing company, specializing in popcorn machines and other concessions equipment. It was established in 1885 with the invention of the first large-scale commercial popcorn machine to pop corn in oil.”
  17. Genetic diversity of North American popcorn and its relationship with Mexican and South American popcorns (Paper 1078) (PDF) (2001). Retrieved on 6 July 2016.

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