1760

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Tacky's War... A Change in Attitude Toward Slavery

Years of a low-level war with the Maroons of Jamaica forced British planters to sign a peace treaty in 1738. The Maroons were granted 1,500 acres of land for themselves and agreed to put down any armed rebellion amongst the remaining slaves. They were also granted a bounty of $2 per slave to return any runaways. For decades the fix has been in, so the British have fallen into complacency. Thus, when a slave named Tacky leads a rebellion, his first victories are easily won. The Maroons are reluctant to put down the rebellion mostly because the British have been late paying their bounties. Once the money issue is settled, the Maroons kill Tacky in a skirmish, thus ending the rebellion.... mostly. There will be a few more uprisings, but essentially this rebellion is over. As the dust settles, 60 white planters lay dead and £100,000 pounds worth of damage remains which is around $19 million in 2014 dollars. [1] [2] [3]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
British attitudes toward slaves changed after this rebellion. They could no longer trust the slaves imported from West Africa. After all, those slaves were usually former warriors taken prisoner and shipped off to Jamaica. They were free people, suddenly made slaves. They were also very expensive. The inflationary policies of the British forced the cost of an imported slave to rise 300%. The Maroons helped the British in putting down the rebellion, giving the impression that slaves born of slaves might be easily controlled. Thus there was every incentive to stop importing slaves and focusing on female slaves to produce children and thus a ready number of slaves for the future. That was the result of this brief war and why William Wilberforce will get some traction when he introduces a bill in Parliament to stop the importation of slaves into the British Empire.

The First and the Oldest American Tobacco Company

R.J. Reynolds won't enter the picture until 2014. Before that, the Lorillard (LOR-rih-lard) Tobacco Company will be the first American tobacco company and the oldest. It begins by grinding tobacco for snuff. It will survive the American Revolution though the founder will not. He will be killed by British forces, but his sons will carry on the business. They will produce the first American tobacco ad in 1787. In later years the company will produce Turkish cigarettes, until the early 20th century when they will introduce the familiar Old Golds brand using the first "blindfold comparison test" to promote it. They will also produce Newport cigarettes, Kents and Mavericks. They will finally be bought out by R.J. Reynolds in 2014. [4] [5] [6]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Apparently the tobacco business can be a little rough at times. Lorillard (LOR-rih-lard) Tobacco Company came under official scrutiny after the American Tobacco Company bought a controlling interest in 1899. The courts required them to split up. But the real trouble began after the CEO swore under oath that nicotine was not addictive and that cigarettes did not cause cancer. Big mistake. They entered into negotiations to pay off the relatives of people who had died after smoking "coffin nails," a slang term for cigarettes that has been in use since the late 1880s. The tobacco companies have been a target for every group with a gripe simply because they sell a plant product that is known by the State of California to cause an early death. But I am told that e-cigarettes are perfectly safe. They may well be safer than regular cigarettes, but safe? I can feel a lawsuit coming on. [7] [8] [9]

Mad King George the 3rd Takes the Throne

He's not insane yet, but in his later years King George the 3rd will struggle with mental illness and eventually require a regent to administer his kingdom and the empire. As he ascends the throne, King George attempts to distance himself from his ties with Hanover, Germany by saying, "Born and educated in this country, I glory in the name of Britain". It won't help much. His personal holdings are still in Hanover. He is 22 years old and all-in-all he will do well as a King. He is very interested in science, and when the Longitude Board gets bogged down in petty politics, he will grant an audience to the inventor of the marine watch and shepherd his invention through the worst of it. (A little royal attention always helps to grease the wheels.) The King will do less well during the American Revolution. The French and Indian War has run up a heck of a bill and the King will call for taxes on the colonies to pay for its own defense. These taxes will be unwelcome in America. Of course in the modern day the British will joke, "So how is taxation WITH representation working out?" [10] [11]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
No one really knows why King George the 3rd went mad. Some speculate that it was due to a genetic disease that caused toxins to build up in the brain, but by 1811 it was clear that he could no longer reign and a few years later he was reduced to a raving fool. In the Academy Award winning movie "The King's Speech", King George the 6th expressed the worry that his stammering would place him in league with Mad King George the 3rd who the British came to believe was at the root of the eventual loss of the British empire. With Hitler on the march, the new King George the 6th would have to give many speeches in encouragement to his subjects. He was able to work through his speech impediment with help from Lionel, his therapist and friend. And in case anyone was wondering, German was spoken in the English royal household. The German connection never really went away despite changing the family name to Windsor. His daughter, now Queen Elizabeth, remains on the throne as of this writing. [12]

This Year in Wikipedia

Year 1760, Wikipedia.

See Also

References

  1. On the Maroons. scholar.library.miami.edu (2016). Retrieved on 5 April 2016. “During the 18th century, the powerful Maroons, escaped ex-slaves who settled in the mountains of Jamaica, carved out a significant area of influence. Through the use of slave labor, the production of sugar in this British colony flourished. But the courageous resistance of the Maroons threatened this prosperous industry. These efforts included plantation raids, the killing of white militiamen, and the freeing of slaves. The threat to the system was clear and present; hence, the planters were willing to sign a treaty with the Maroons in 1738.”
  2. Fergus, Claudius (October 2009). ""Dread of Insurrection": Abolitionism, Security, and Labor in Britain's West Indian Colonies, 1760-1823". The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series (Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture) 66 (4): 757-780. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40467540. Retrieved 6 April 2016. 
  3. Tacky's War - Wikipedia (2014). Retrieved on 28 December 2014.
  4. Lorillard Tobacco Company - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 28 August 2015. “The company is named for Pierre Abraham Lorillard, who founded the company in 1760.”
  5. Pierre Abraham Lorillard - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 5 April 2016. “Lorillard died in 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, killed by Hessian mercenaries of the British during the British occupation of New York City,[4] but after his death his business was carried on by his descendants and grew into the Lorillard Tobacco Company.”
  6. Lorillard and Tobacco 200th Anniversary. web.archive.org (2016). Retrieved on 5 April 2016. “176o The tobacco industry in America is launched-after previous short-lived attempts-when Pierre Lorillard opens a 'manufactory' in New York City to produce and sell tobacco products 'of the best quality and flavor.' :1787 Earliest known newspaper tobacco advertising campaign in the country is started by Peter and George Lorillard, sons of Pierre Lorillard. 17 9', The Lorillard Brothers move their main factory to the banks of the Bronx River north of New York and, in one of the earliest industrial uses of water- power in America, harnessed the swift-flowing waters to run the new mill.”
  7. Coffin nail - definition of coffin nail (2016). Retrieved on 5 April 2016. “Slang. a cigarette. [1885–90]”
  8. "California labels e-cigarettes a public health threat", The Washington Post, January 29, 2015. Retrieved on 5 April 2016. “The California Department of Public Health on Wednesday issued a warning about the dangers of e-cigarettes, as states across the country consider new regulations for the booming industry.” 
  9. California Proposition 65 (1986) - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 5 April 2016. “WARNING: This product contains chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm.”
  10. Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. Simon and Schuster, 350-351. 
  11. George III of the United Kingdom - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 14 June 2015. “In the later part of his life, George III suffered from recurrent, and eventually permanent, mental illness. Although it has since been suggested that he suffered from the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established, and George III's eldest son, George, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent. On George III's death, the Prince Regent succeeded his father as George IV.”
  12. George VI - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 6 April 2016. “Because of his stammer, Albert dreaded public speaking.[36] After his closing speech at the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley on 31 October 1925, one which was an ordeal for both him and his listeners, he began to see Lionel Logue, an Australian-born speech therapist. The Duke and Logue practised breathing exercises, and the Duchess rehearsed with him patiently. Subsequently, he was able to speak with less hesitation.”

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