1745

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Oliver Ellsworth, the Forgotten Founding Father

One might think that the 3rd Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court would not be worth remembering, but in fact, he is critically important to the design of the US government. Oliver Ellsworth is born this year in Windsor, Connecticut. He will attend Yale, be admitted to the bar and his accomplishments will be several. He will be one of the representatives at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. More importantly, he will be one the prime designers of the federal government, splitting the Congress into a House representing the population, and a Senate representing the states. He will also design the federal court system. President George Washington will nominate him as Chief Justice, a job which he will later leave to help out John Adams in France. John Adams will ask for his help in peace and trade negotiations with France. (France and the USA will not always get along.) Ellsworth will resign his position on the Supreme Court, and negotiate with Napoleon. They will get along famously, and he will set up the conditions that will bring about the Louisiana Purchase. [1]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
John F. Kennedy wrote the article on Oliver Ellsworth for Encyclopedia Britannica, so he must have thought the man was important to history. That is why I took a second look at him. He was a Federalist, which means he believed in a strong central government, but such governments depends upon a thoughtful, selfless leadership that is trusted by the vast majority of citizens to protect them. Once Thomas Jefferson started his Democratic-Republican Party, Ellsworth realized that the US Government, as envisioned by the Federalists, would ultimately fail. (Which it did after the War of 1812.) After Ellsworth completed his negotiations with Napoleon, he submitted his resignation, and retired quietly to his farm in Connecticut. He was confident that God would set things right in His own time if not in Ellsworth's time. I'm every bit as confident, but it hasn't happened yet. [2] [3]

The First Capacitor and the Electric Car

The first reasonable method for storing static electricity is invented this year by two people in independent efforts: A bishop from Germany and a Dutch scientist from Leyden. Thus the name of this storage device for electricity is called the Leyden Jar. (In the modern day we call it a capacitor.) It consists of a glass jar or bottle with the interior coated with metal and the exterior coated with metal with no direct connection between the two. What looks like an electrode is attached to the inner coating and acts as a collector of static electricity. The charge remains trapped until the inner and outer connections meet. Then the energy is released. It can produce a humdinger of a shock and in the modern day, some capacitor discharges can be deadly. [4]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Capacitors consist of two conductors separated by an insulator. It can be used to store electricity somewhat like a battery. The difference is that a capacitor will charge very quickly and release its charge very quickly, unlike a battery which would suffer damage if used in such a manner. Capacitors can be used in an electric car where energy can be collected quickly as you are braking for the red light and then released as the light turns green. That sort of quick storage and release cannot be accomplished with an ordinary battery. So... wouldn't it be better if we could charge our electric car in a couple of minutes with a capacitor rather than the hours it takes with a battery? Why aren't capacitors used to run the whole electric car? Probably because any capacitor that could store enough energy to push an electric car all by itself is also large enough to blow you to smithereens if it shorts out internally. Supercapacitors are somewhat different in design from a normal capacitor, so science may one day find a full answer to the question of capacitors vs batteries. I hear a lot of promises, but I haven't seen a fully realized consumer product yet. [5] [6] [7]

And a Lot of Important Births

  • Benjamin Rush, U.S. physician and the advocate for asylums for the mentally ill. (Asylum in those days meant "refuge".) [8]
  • Valintin Haüy (how-Wee) will establish the 1st School for the Blind. Louis Braille will attend and build upon the tactile reading system developed by Haüy (how-Wee). [9] [10]
  • John Jay, author of five of the Federalist Papers . He will also become 1st Chief Justice of the United States [8]

This Year in Wikipedia

Year 1745, Wikipedia.

See Also

References

  1. Oliver Ellsworth - chief justice of United States. Britannica.com (2016). Retrieved on 16 March 2016. “Ellsworth lacked the intellectual brilliance of some of his contemporaries, but, in the arena of practical politics, none of the founders was superior to—and perhaps none even equaled—him in the pragmatic art of effectively wielding power in legislative assemblies. In particular, Ellsworth had an extraordinary ability to fashion workable compromises. He had a clear, sophisticated, and detailed political philosophy and psychology, but he was not a member of the secular Enlightenment. Instead, he was a strict Calvinist who claimed that, as a young man, he had personally experienced his election by God for salvation. His entire personal and public life was ordered by a rigorous Calvinism founded upon a belief in absolute predestination. He firmly believed that everything he did was part of God’s plan for mankind. In the political realm, he enthusiastically embraced compromise as long as he was convinced of the overall righteousness of a particular project.”
  2. Democratic-Republican Party - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 16 March 2016. “The Democratic-Republican Party was the American political party in the 1790s of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison formed in opposition to the centralizing policies of the Federalist party. It came to power in 1800, and dominated national and state affairs until the 1820s, when it faded away.”
  3. Federalist Party - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 16 March 2016. “The Federalist Party was the first American political party. It existed from the early 1790s to 1816; its remnants lasted into the 1820s. The Federalists called for a strong national government that promoted economic growth and fostered friendly relationships with Great Britain, as well as opposition to revolutionary France.”
  4. Leyden jar - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 16 March 2016. “A Leyden jar, or Leiden jar, is a device that 'stores' static electricity between two electrodes on the inside and outside of a glass jar. A Leyden jar typically consists of a glass jar with metal foil cemented to the inside and the outside surfaces, and a metal terminal projecting vertically through the jar lid to make contact with the inner foil. It was the original form of a capacitor (originally known as a 'condenser').”
  5. Security Now! Transcript of Episode #510 (Listener Feedback #213). Gibson Research Corporation (2014). Retrieved on 16 March 2016. “But right now supercapacitors are in use in a number of electric vehicles. They use them for the short-cycle regenerative process, where you put your foot on the brakes, and that braking energy which is recaptured by the wheel motors does not go into batteries. They go into a supercapacitor. Because that short cycle, it wants to take the energy very fast and then dump it out very fast. And batteries, you don't want to be pumping in and out of batteries like that. You want that to provide more of the long-term drive current, not the short-term current. So supercapacitors are already finding a role, but not yet as the primary store of energy for vehicles.”
  6. How do supercapacitors work?. Explain that Stuff (December 3, 2015). Retrieved on 16 March 2016. “In a supercapacitor, there is no dielectric as such. Instead, both plates are soaked in an electrolyte and separated by a very thin insulator (which might be made of carbon, paper, or plastic). When the plates are charged up, an opposite charge forms on either side of the separator, creating what's called an electric double-layer, maybe just one molecule thick (compared to a dielectric that might range in thickness from a few microns to a millimeter or more in a conventional capacitor).”
  7. Taser safety issues - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 16 March 2016. “Critics argue that Tasers and other high-voltage stun devices can cause cardiac arrhythmia in susceptible subjects, possibly leading to heart attack or death in minutes by ventricular fibrillation, which leads to cardiac arrest and—if not treated immediately—to sudden death.”
  8. 8.0 8.1 Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. Simon and Schuster, 342-343. 
  9. Louis Braille - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 16 March 2016. “Louis Braille (4 January 1809 – 6 January 1852) was a French educator and inventor of a system of reading and writing for use by the blind or visually impaired. His system remains known worldwide simply as braille.”
  10. Valentin Haüy - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 16 March 2016. “Valentin Haüy (13 November 1745 – 19 March 1822) was the founder, in 1784, of the first school for the blind, the Royal Institution for the Young Blind in Paris (now the National Institute for the Young Blind, INJA). In 1819, Louis Braille entered this school.”

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