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Thomas Jefferson is born

Thomas Jefferson is born to Peter Jefferson, a Virginia farmer and Jane Jefferson, a London-born daughter of a ship's captain. He will attend William and Mary College and read law. At 33, Thomas Jefferson will compose the Declaration of Independence. His masterly writing style will be obvious to all, but his weak voice won't allow him to deliver a speech to save his life. He will become President of the United States, declare war against the Barbary Pirates and will buy the Louisiana Territory because Napoleon will need a quick infusion of cash. He will lower the debt, build a Navy, separate Church and State yet attend religious services held in a government building. He will also oppose the Federalists, support state's rights and express the idea that the Constitution ought to be revisited every few years. I'll admit it. I thought Jefferson was crazy with that last one, but now I'm not so sure. [1] [2] [3]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
People want to know if Thomas Jefferson fathered a child by Sally Hemings, his slave-servant. It seems unlikely. The original accusation was made during the Presidential campaign between Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. That campaign makes a modern Presidential campaign look like light-hearted, friendly banter in comparison. No one believed the accusation at the time, but years later some people claimed to be descended from Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings. DNA test were run, and the tests showed that the people who made the claim were mistaken. However, the DNA test did show a Jefferson male along a different line of descendants. Thus... there was a male Jefferson who fathered a child with Sally Hemings. Was it Thomas? I think his brother is the more likely candidate. He liked to hang out with the slaves. Finally, I remind you that Virginia law did not allow a slave owner to free his slaves. Slaves were considered property like real estate and were inherited in the same way. [4] [5] [6]

The 'Last Wolf Shot' and Paying for Invisible Sheep

It is difficult to verify this story because the date of "the last wolf shot" keeps changing. The previous "last wolf shot" was in 1680. This year a fellow named McQueen claims to have shot "the last wolf" near a town in Scotland. Another "last wolf" will be shot in 1769. All of these accounts may be wishful thinking, but right around this time, the wolf population is so small that it is easy to believe that wolves are extinct. The use of the firearm and the bounty on wolf heads has driven the wolf and the fox to near extinction in the British Isles. Because of the popularity of fox hunting, foxes from France will be reintroduced to the English countryside fairly soon. Wolves, on the other hand, will have to wait until the end of the 20th century even to be considered. As of 2015, the British government has decided not to reintroduce wolves to the British Isles. [7] [8] [9] [10]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
What is the rationale for reintroducing wolves to Scotland? It's the strange logic of government subsidies. Academic studies in Spain show that 80% of sheep deaths are caused by wolf attacks, and deer hunting in Scotland must be managed by man. The other significant fact is that sheep farming in Scotland is actually a profit-losing business. The only reason it still exists is because the government subsidizes it, thus paying inefficient sheep farmers to remain inefficient. Nevertheless, the "logic" goes that if the government is already paying a farmer to raise a live sheep, the government can just as easily pay for any dead ones that a wolf might eat. It's not the sheep that is making money for the farmer. It's the government payment to the farmer. I suspect that one day a Scottish sheep farmer will collect payment for invisible sheep the same way that Depression-era farmers would take government money for invisible crops... that is... for NOT planting crops. Farm Subsidy Bills are still passed every major election, funneling billions of dollars to farmers. I wonder if these billions are buying invisible sheep already. [11]

Science, Science, Science

* Joseph Banks is born. He will introduce Eucalyptus and Acacia Trees; FREE LOVE AND CANNABIS to the western world. He will be a hoot. [12] [13]
* Uranium and Zirconium will be discovered by Martin Klaproth, born this year in Germany. [14]
* The Father of Modern Chemistry is Antoine Lavoisier, born in France this year. He will write the first modern chemistry textbook and name the elements oxygen, hydrogen and begin the first periodic table of the elements. [15]
* The Father of Crystallography is René Haüy (how WEE), born in France this year. He will accidentally drop a piece of calcite and become curious of its crystallized structure. His name will be inscribed on the Eiffel Tower.[16]

This Year in Wikipedia

Year 1743, Wikipedia.

See Also


  1. Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. Simon and Schuster, 342-343. 
  2. Thomas Jefferson - U.S. Presidents. History.com (2016). Retrieved on 13 March 2016. “Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, at Shadwell, a plantation on a large tract of land near present-day Charlottesville, Virginia. His father, Peter Jefferson (1707/08-57), was a successful planter and surveyor and his mother, Jane Randolph Jefferson (1720-76), came from a prominent Virginia family. Thomas was their third child and eldest son; he had six sisters and one surviving brother.”
  3. Timeline of Slavery and the Underground Railroad (PDF). The New Bedford Historical Society (2016). Retrieved on 14 March 2016. “1705 Slaves begin to be described as real estate. Virginia lawmakers allow owners to bequeath their slaves in their wills. This law allows masters to kill runaways.”
  4. Slavery and the Making of America . Timeline. PBS (2004). Retrieved on 14 March 2016. “1691 Virginia prohibits the manumission of slaves within its borders. Manumitted slaves are forced to leave the colony.”
  5. Nasty campaign ads an American tradition. CBS News (August 19, 2012). Retrieved on 14 March 2016. “Thomas Jefferson's campaign against President John Adams was probably the first really nasty one. Jefferson's supporters accused Adams of being a hermaphrodite with 'neither the force and firmness of a man, nor the gentleness and sensibility of a woman.' In response, the Adams campaign accused Jefferson of being the son of a half-breed Indian squaw and a mulatto father.”
  6. Jefferson–Hemings controversy - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 14 March 2016. “The DNA study showed a match between a descendant of the Jefferson male line and a descendant of Eston Hemings, Sally's youngest son. It showed no match between the Carr line and the Hemings descendant, nor between the Jefferson line and Thomas Woodson descendants, who had an oral history of descent.”
  7. Giscombe, C. S. (Winter 2012). "Precarious Creatures". The Kenyon Review, New Series (Kenyon College) 34 (1): 157-175. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41304743. Retrieved 11 March 2016. "I looked it up later and found out that it's generally conceded that they were all dead by the 1680s. But a story persists that a fellow named MacQueen killed the last wolf in Scotland - and, implicitly, in all Britain - after that, in 1743. (Henry Shoemaker mentions the story in the section of Extinct Pennsylvania Animals that concerns wolves.)". 
  8. "Struggle of Man with Nature, The". The Anthropological Review (Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland) 5 (18, 19): 276-294. July - October 1867. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3024920. Retrieved 11 March 2016. "How soon before the progress of culture wild beasts disappear is shown by England, where, on account of its insular position, access from foreign ports was impossible. In 1680 the last wolf was shot in Scotland, where a century before wolf-hunts took place. The fox, which from its wariness frequently escapes, has, for the amusement of fox-hunters, several times been imported from France. Moreover the fox is merely hunted, not shot. Since the introduction of guns hunting animals are much more liable to destruction. If we did not protect the game in our fields and forests by sparing them during fixed periods, and by game licenses, they would soon become extinct.". 
  9. Nilsen, Erlend B.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.; Schofield, Lee; Mysterud, Atle; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Coulson, Tim (April 7, 2007). "Wolf Reintroduction to Scotland: Public Attitudes and Consequences for Red Deer Management". Proceedings: Biological Sciences (Royal Society) 274 (1612): 995-1002. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25223879. Retrieved 11 March 2016. "In much of the Highlands of Scotland, wolves (Canis lupus) were eradicated by 1769, but there are currently proposals for them to be reintroduced. Their main wild prey if reintroduced would be red deer (Cervus elaphus). Red deer are themselves a contentious component of the Scottish landscape. They support a trophy hunting industry but are thought to be close to carrying capacity, and are believed to have a considerable economic and ecological impact.". 
  10. Call for lynx and wolf reintroduction. BBC News (15 July 2015). Retrieved on 11 March 2016. “And the Scottish government says there are no plans to reintroduce large predators such as lynx or wolves.”
  11. Please, Not Another Farm Bill. RealClearPolitics (November 1, 2007). Retrieved on 11 March 2016. “The $280 billion-plus farm bill is not the largest waste of federal funds, but it is the most unnecessary -- and dishonest. We are running federal budget deficits -- this year's is about the size of the proposed multiyear farm bill -- engaged in two costly wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and spending billions in anti-terrorist security at home.”
  12. Joseph Banks - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 11 March 2016. “He is credited with introducing the eucalyptus, acacia, and the genus named after him, Banksia, to the Western world. Approximately 80 species of plants bear his name.”
  13. Holmes, Richard. Age of Wonder: How the Romantic Generation Discovered the Beauty and Terror of Science, The. Pantheon Books. ISBN 9780307378323. 
  14. Martin Heinrich Klaproth - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 11 March 2016. “He was the first to discover uranium while studying the mineral pitchblende. In addition, he discovered zirconium, and characterized uranium and zirconium as distinct elements, though he did not obtain any of them in the pure metallic state; and he elucidated the composition of numerous substances till then imperfectly known, including compounds of the then newly recognized elements: tellurium, strontium, cerium and chromium.”
  15. Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. Simon and Schuster, 342-343. 
  16. René Just Haüy - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 11 March 2016. “René Just Haüy (French pronunciation: ​[aɥi]; 28 February 1743 – 3 June 1822) was a French mineralogist, commonly styled the Abbé Haüy after he was made an honorary canon of Notre Dame. He is often referred to as the 'Father of Modern Crystallography.'”

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