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Coffee Comes to Brazil

The coffee bean has been known for centuries. An Ethiopian noticed that his goats became more energetic whenever they chewed the local coffee berries. He began chewing them and became energetic himself. Coffee plants were cultivated in Yemen and shipped through the sea port of Mocha (pronounced, MOH-kah). Toward the end of the 1600s, the Dutch planted coffee beans on the Indonesian island of Java. Now coffee beans have reached Brazil. Coffee plants require a particular environment in order to thrive. Central and South America will be ideal. The plant is susceptible to many diseases, but those diseases have trouble taking hold there. The farmers are watching carefully and destroying infected plants before disease can spread. The coffee plant does well in shade so it will thrive under the canopy of Brazil's forests. Brazil is about to become a major coffee producer. [1] [2] [3]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Coffee produces caffeine, and computer programmers everywhere are grateful, but one wonders why the plant would produce it in the first place? In fact, caffeine is toxic to the plant, but caffeine protects the seeds from fungus and bacteria. It might also repel insects. A coffee plant can live for 100 years but commercial production will fall off after 10 to 20 years due to an excess of caffeine build-up in the soil from falling leaves and overripe berries from the plant itself. [3]

The Hessians Are Coming! The Hessians Are Coming!

England is having trouble recruiting troops, but they have plenty of money so it makes more sense to hire mercenaries rather than conscript British subjects. The Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (a princedom in Germany) already has a standing army but the Hessian troops have nothing to do, so the Prince is hiring out his troops, sometimes committing them to both sides of a conflict. Historians speculate that the Prince built up a large number of troops for the express purpose of hiring them out. Many of these Hessian rent-a-warriors have been pressed into service... (read as "forced"). During the American Revolution, a substantial portion the British forces will be made up of these Hessian troops. Since the Hessians are forced into service, in 1776 the Continental Congress will offer each of them 50 acres of land to entice them to desert and up to 800 acres to British soldiers depending on rank. The land will be across the Appalachians so after the war, many of the soldiers who took the Congress up on the offer will sell their land certificates for pennies on the dollar. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
The English Kings of that time were from the House of Hanover in Germany. While the English King was not supposed to have entanglements with his German holdings at the king-level, the Kings were still tripped up by their association with Germany. If you watched the movie "The King's Speech" you will look inside the workings of the English royal family before World War 2 and how important it was to speak proper English. What you will not see in the movie (and did not hear) was that the English royal family spoke German between themselves. During World War 1, the royal family changed their name to Windsor. Before that time they had a distinctively German family name... "Saxe-Coburg and Gotha." Is Queen Elizabeth the 2nd from this German family line? Jawohl (Yes). [9] [10]

King George Takes Up His Wife's Challenge

King George the 1st of Great Britain has had a rocky marriage. He arranged his marriage with Queen Sophia mostly for political purposes. She bore him a daughter and a son, but somewhere down the line they were estranged. The King took a lover and had two bastard children through his mistress. For some reason, this upset the Queen so she decided to elope with the Colonel of the Guard. Oddly, he ended up dead and his body thrown into the river... maybe. No one knows for sure. Queen Sofia was then locked up for 31 years... until her death. She had servants but she never again went unsupervised. Before she died, she issued a challenge to her husband to meet her in Heaven to stand before God in final judgement. King George has now taken up that challenge. The King is dead. Long live the King. [11] [12]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Well... King George the 1st was a royal pain. He also had a falling out with his son, the Prince of Wales, who became King George the 2nd. Apparently the Prince had been a lot more popular than the King. In a jealous fit, the King forbade the Prince from seeing his own children. I'd like to say that King George the 1st was insane at that point but I don't believe it. I think he was just a mean old cuss. Once King George the 2nd took the throne, he entitled his daughter, Princess Anne, as Princess Royal. It is a special title given for life to the eldest daughter of the royal family. Princess Anne was the 2nd woman to receive the title. The current holder is the 7th... Her Royal Highness, the Princess Anne. She is the daughter of Queen Elizabeth the 2nd. [13]

This Year in Wikipedia

Year 1727, Wikipedia.

See Also


  1. Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. Simon and Schuster, 334-335. “Coffee first planted in Brazil” 
  2. The blessed bean. Harowo.com (June 19, 2006). Retrieved on 8 February 2016. “Legend traces the discovery of coffee back to the third century and an Ethiopian goat herd who noticed his goats had abnormally high levels of energy after eating the red cherries that grew wild on shrubs in the mountains. He shared his knowledge with the local monks who used the berries to stay awake during long hours of prayer. Through trade, the original Ethiopian coffee plants were gradually spread around the world.”
  3. 3.0 3.1 Francis, John K. (February 8, 2016). Coffea arabica - Factsheet of U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (PDF). “The original native population of coffee was in the highlands of Ethiopia with possible disjunct populations in nearby highland areas of Sudan and Kenya. [...] Coffee was first cultivated by Arabs during the 14th century and introduced into the New World and much of the rest of the tropics during the 17th century [...] Caffeine protects vegetative plant parts from insect and fungal attack and inhibits the growth of plants and bacteria near germinating seeds [...]”
  4. Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. Simon and Schuster, 334-335. “England first uses Hessian mercenaries” 
  5. Desert - definition of desert (2016). Retrieved on 9 February 2016. “To forsake one's duty or post, especially to be absent without leave from the armed forces with no intention of returning.”
  6. Hessian (soldier) - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 9 February 2016. “Hessians is the term given to the 18th-century German auxiliaries contracted for military service by the British government, which found it easier to borrow money to pay for their service than to recruit its own soldiers. They took their name from the German state of Hesse-Kassel. The British hired Hessian troops for combat duty in several eighteenth century conflicts, but they are most widely associated with combat operations in the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783).”
  7. Lowell, Edward Jackson (1884). "The Hessians - Chapter One", The Hessians and the Other German Auxiliaries of Great Britain in the Revolutionary War. Harper & Bros. Retrieved on 9 February 2016. “Some of them were with the army of the Duke of Cumberland during the Pretender's invasion in 1745; but it is stated that they refused to fight in that campaign for want of a cartel for the exchange of prisoners (Letter of Sir Joseph Yorke to the Earl of Suffolk, quoted in Kapp's Soldatenhandel,' 1st ed. p. 229.) It would have been well for many of them had they declined to go to America for the same reason. So little was it a matter of patriotism, or of political preference, with the Landgraves, that in 1743 Hessian stood against Hessian, six thousand men serving in the army of King George II of England, and six thousand in the opposing force of the Emperor Charles VII.” 
  8. American Agriculture: A Brief History. Google Books (2016). Retrieved on 9 February 2016.
  9. House of Windsor - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 9 February 2016. “It was founded by King George V by royal proclamation on 17 July 1917, when he changed the name of the British Royal Family from the German Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (a branch of the House of Wettin) to the English Windsor, due primarily to the anti-German sentiment in the British Empire during World War I. The most prominent member of the House of Windsor at any given time is its head, currently Queen Elizabeth II.”
  10. Alex Shrugged notes: I have a friend who was a British subject and she reported to me that the British Royal family spoke German in their day-to-day speech during that time.
  11. Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. Simon and Schuster, 334-335. “George I of England d.; succeeded by his son George II (-1760)” 
  12. Age of Voltaire: A History of Civilization in Western Europe from 1715 to 1756, With Special Emphasis on the Conflict Between Religion and Philosophy, The, The Story Of Civilization. Simon and Schuster. “His wife, Sophia Dorothea, resented his infidelities, and planned elopement with Count Philipp von Konigsmarck, handsome colonel of the guards. George discovered the plot; the Count was never heard of again, and was presumably put to death (1694). Sophia Dorothea was arrested and tried, her marriage was annulled, and she was imprisoned for the remaining thirty-two years of her life in the castle of Ahlden.” 
  13. Princess Royal - Wikipedia (2016). Retrieved on 9 February 2016. “Princess Royal is a style customarily (but not automatically) awarded by a British monarch to his or her eldest daughter. Holders retain the style for life, so a princess cannot receive the style during the lifetime of another Princess Royal. Queen Elizabeth II never held the title as her aunt, Princess Mary, was in possession of the title. The Princess Mary (1631-1660), the inaugural holder (1642-1660) of the title Princess Royal There have been seven Princesses Royal. Princess Anne is the current Princess Royal.”

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