1660

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All Is Forgiven... Except for the Fines *

After the death of Oliver Cromwell and the forced resignation of his son, Richard, the Parliament invites Charles the 2nd to pick up where his father left off. The soon-to-be King issues an invitation to all who opposed his father, the previous King of England, to take an oath of loyalty, and all will be forgiven. Probably the most important part of the proclamation is that the military will get all of their back pay. The wording of Charles the 2nd's proclamation is somewhat vague. He allows that Parliament might decide to change some of these conditions and indeed it does. The Indemnity and Oblivion Act of 1660 does NOT forgive those directly involved with the beheading of King Charles the 1st. Also not forgiven are crimes such as witchcraft, murder, piracy, rape, and buggery (which is usually animal... uh... well... never mind). Whatever it is, it is not forgiven! Also not forgiven are any fines due the Parliament... which gives rise to a lot of resentment and a little ditty that summarizes how the public feels... [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

For where there’s money to be got
I find this pardon pardons not…
My Take by Alex Shrugged
The people wanted stability more than liberty. (Let's be frank. They still do.) The army privates at the time understood that a free republic was needed, but they were mostly ignored. It was the nobles pushing for a return of the king. Otherwise their precious institutions of privilege and special rights would fall. This is the problem with liberty. It takes work. Sometimes it takes a lot of work. When the American Revolution began, the majority of the colonists did NOT want to break with the King. They had their complaints but not enough to do more than throw a few boxes of tea into the harbor. It took a core leadership with a reasonable plan and the will to push everyone else forward. The Articles of Confederation and the Declaration of Independence weren't a full plan but they were enough to make a beginning. In the modern day some people think that we need a constitutional convention to put our country back on the right path, but the majority of people do not. Everyone has their complaints but not enough to do something about them... and they probably never will.

The First Professional Shakespearean Actresses Are Not Prostitutes

In 1642, the Puritan-led English Parliament closed the theaters. After all, there was a civil war going on and the theaters were places of subversion. Were they really places of subversion? Yes, but any public place would have been a place of subversion at the time. And all public places except churches were associated with vice such as gambling, prostitution, and the worst vice of all... Shakespeare! (Shudder!) Now that the civil war is over, the theaters are reopened with an innovation. Women are now allowed on the stage as actresses in England and Germany. Before this time all the women's parts were played by boys, despite what Gweneth Paltrow will do in the movie Shakespeare in Love (1998). (Do not take your history lessons from movies!) [6] [7] [8]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Well... this was not the first time women were on stage. In Japan, during the beginnings of Kabuki theater, prostitutes filled in as actresses for the play. Most Kabuki plays are love stories and with prostitutes on stage the ticket sales were brisk. There was always a satisfying ending for the audience, but the play rarely finished, if you know what I mean. The wives were not too happy with the whole idea so men began taking the women's roles which made Kabuki theater more reputable thereafter. [9]

This Year on Wikipedia

Year 1660, Wikipedia.

See Also

References

* The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
  1. Indemnity and Oblivion Act - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 25 September 2015. “The Indemnity and Oblivion Act 1660 is an Act of the Parliament of England (12 Cha. II c. 11), the long title of which is 'An Act of Free and General Pardon, Indemnity, and Oblivion'. This act was a general pardon for everyone who had committed crimes during the Civil War and Interregnum with the exception of certain crimes such as murder (without a licence granted by King or Parliament), piracy, buggery, rape and witchcraft, and people named in the act such as those involved in the regicide of Charles I. It also said that no action was to be taken against those involved at any later time, and that the Interregnum was to be legally forgotten.”
  2. Antonia Fraser. Cromwell (Ebook), Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.. ISBN 9780802195821. “The intention to mould them further into the English State did exist: for although the Mass was still prohibited, it was no longer mandatory to attend an English church on Sundays. Records in 1652 and 1653 showed a decline in the people indicted for the practice of the Catholic faith. But at the same time the sequestrations of their estates remained one of the Government’s chief sources of money, not to be ignored in time of stress, or as one disillusioned rhyme put it: For where there’s money to be got / I find this pardon pardons not…” 
  3. Declaration of Breda - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 13 October 2015. “The Declaration of Breda (issued on 4 April 1660) was a proclamation by Charles II of England in which he promised a general pardon for crimes committed during the English Civil War and the Interregnum for all those who recognised Charles as the lawful king; the retention by the current owners of property purchased during the same period; religious toleration; and the payment of pay arrears to members of the army, and that the army would be recommissioned into service under the crown. The first three pledges were all subject to amendment by acts of parliament.”
  4. Lister, T. H.. Life and administration of Edward, first Earl of Clarendon. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans. “And it said, in conclusion, "we do further declare that we will be ready to consent to any Act or Acts of Parliament to the purposes aforesaid, and for the full satisfaction of all arrears due to the officers and soldiers of the army under the command of General Monk; and that they shall be received into our service upon as good pay and conditions as they now enjoy."” 
  5. Richard Cromwell - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 13 October 2015. “Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, and one of only two commoners to become the English head of state, the other being his father, Oliver Cromwell, from whom he inherited the position.”
  6. Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. Simon and Schuster. “Actresses on Ger. and Eng. Stages; Patents granted for reopening of London theaters (see 1642)” 
  7. Elizabeth Barry - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 9 October 2015. “Her stage career began 15 years after the first-ever professional actresses had replaced Shakespeare's boy heroines on the London stage.”
  8. Gwyneth Paltrow - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 13 October 2015. “Following starring roles in the romantic comedy-drama Sliding Doors (1998) and the thriller A Perfect Murder (1998), Paltrow garnered worldwide recognition through her performance in Shakespeare in Love (1998), for which she won an Academy Award for Best Actress, a Golden Globe Award and two Screen Actors Guild Awards, for Outstanding Lead Actress and as a member of the Outstanding Cast.”
  9. Kabuki Theater. Japan-Zone.com (2015). Retrieved on 2 June 2015. “As was the stage tradition in Elizabethan England, kabuki is performed entirely by men. Strangely enough however, this art form was created by Okuni, a female shrine attendant, in the 17th century. Although greatly influenced by the aristocratic noh, kabuki was largely popular entertainment for the masses. A large part of the popularity of the early, all-female performances was due to their sensual nature. The performers were also prostitutes and male audiences often got out of control.”

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