1645

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The Little Ice Age and the Problem with Error *

This year begins 70 years with virtually ZERO sunspots reported. Of course, an absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. There are indications that the reports on solar events might be spotty and uneven in the 17th century. Yet future scientists will use these reports as if the readings were as methodical, accurate and precise as modern day measurements. It makes one uncomfortable that we are counting on these measurements to make decisions today, but the lack of solar activity in the 17th century corresponds with the worst drop in temperatures in the Little Ice Age and a change in the amount of carbon-14 in the air, coupled with a drop in the number of reports of the Aurora Borealis. Because of this corresponding evidence one can reasonably assert that there was a reduction in solar activity and it was really, really strange. As much as we want to believe that the Sun works in predictable cycles, scientists really can't explain 70 years with almost no sunspots. They can only say that it probably happened. [1]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
One of the problems with scientists (one of several) is that they get caught up in fads. Toward the end of the 1800s, most scientists believed that they understood how everything worked except for a few minor anomalies. Then Albert Einstein changed everything with Relativity and then Max Planck, Niels Bohr, and Werner Heisenberg changed everything with Quantum Mechanics. It was an inside joke when the Star Trek "transporter" had trouble with the Heisenberg compensators. Werner Heisenberg came up with the uncertainty principle but the Star Trek "transporter" needed to be certain were every atom was. Of course, the bigger joke is the assumption that all historical temperature readings are equally methodical and precise. They barely had working thermometers in the 17th century! Calculations cannot be more accurate than the numbers you punch in. As I learned in computer class... garbage in, garbage out, or "To err is human but to really screw up you need a computer!" [2] [3] [4]

Wallpaper Takes the Place of Tapestry

As a wall decoration, some sort of paper wall covering has been around since the late 1400s but this year "paper tapestry" is just beginning to replace normal tapestries as the wall covering of choice for the discriminating palace or aristocratic manor. The paper is handmade and the decorations are painted on the paper or printed using woodblock stamps. Commercially viable production wallpaper won't be available until the early 1700s. [5] [6] [7]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Can window sashes be far behind? Actually, like wallpaper, window sashes have been around for a while but they won't become popular until the 1680s or so in the Netherlands and England. They still aren't weighted yet, so they tend to fall and the windows are fairly difficult to open. [8]

The English Civil War Lumbers On

* The Oxford Parliament was established by King Charles the 1st last year to raise money for the civil war. [9]
* Oliver Cromwell becomes Lieutenant-General of the Cavalry. (Long Parliament) [10]
* Thomas Fairfax becomes commander-in-chief. (Long Parliament) [11]
* The New Model Army is the first army that is not tied to a specific area. (Long Parliament) [12]
* Battles too numerous to mention mostly won by the Long Parliament troops who outnumber the Royalists 2-to-1. [13]
My Take by Alex Shrugged
In general, the Royalists were losing to Cromwell and the Parliamentarians.

This Year on Wikipedia

Year 1645, Wikipedia.

See Also

References

* The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
  1. Eddy, John A. (June 18, 1976). "The Maunder Minimum". Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science) 192 (4245): 1189-1202. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1742583. Retrieved 16 September 2015. 
  2. Larsen, Kristine M.. Cosmology 101, Science 101. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313337314. 
  3. Werner Heisenberg - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 16 September 2015. “In 1927 he published his uncertainty principle, upon which he built his philosophy and for which he is best known.”
  4. Transporter (Star Trek) - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 16 September 2015. “The Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual claims that the devices transport objects in real time, accurate to the quantum level. The episode 'Realm of Fear' specifies the length of a transport under unusual circumstances would last '... four or five seconds; about twice the normal time'. This calculates the length of a typical transport as between 2 and 2.5 seconds and possibly less. Heisenberg compensators remove uncertainty from the subatomic measurements, making transporter travel feasible.”
  5. E. A. ENTWISLE (MAY 1961). "WALLPAPER AND ITS HISTORY". Journal of the Royal Society of Arts (Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce) 109 (5058): 450-467. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41366905. Retrieved 16 September 2015. 
  6. Catherine Lynn (April 1981). "Colors and Other Materials of Historic Wallpaper". Journal of the American Institute for Conservation (Maney Publishing on behalf of The American Institute for Conservation of Historic & Artistic Works) 20 (2): 58-65. http://www.jstor.org/stable/317968. Retrieved 16 September 2015. 
  7. Wallpaper - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 16 September 2015. “The main historical techniques are: hand-painting, woodblock printing (overall the most common), stencilling, and various types of machine-printing. The first three all date back to before 1700.”
  8. H. J. Louw (1983). "The Origin of the Sash-Window". Architectural History (SAHGB Publications Limited) 26: 49-72, 144-150. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1568434. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  9. Oxford Parliament (1644) - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 16 September 2015. “The Parliament met a number of times during the English Civil War and was seen by Charles as a way of raising revenue. However, some of the members defected back to Westminster because they did not like his alliance with Irish Catholics, and others argued strongly for a negotiated peace with the Long Parliament in Westminster Hall.”
  10. Oxford Parliament (1644) - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 16 September 2015. “The Parliament met a number of times during the English Civil War and was seen by Charles as a way of raising revenue. However, some of the members defected back to Westminster because they did not like his alliance with Irish Catholics, and others argued strongly for a negotiated peace with the Long Parliament in Westminster Hall.”
  11. Thomas Fairfax - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 16 September 2015. “After a short preliminary campaign the New Model Army justified its existence, and 'the rebels' new brutish general', as the king called him, proved his capacity as commander-in-chief in the decisive Battle of Naseby (14 June 1645).”
  12. New Model Army - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 16 September 2015. “The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration.”
  13. Oliver Cromwell - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 16 September 2015. “In April 1645 the New Model Army finally took to the field, with Sir Thomas Fairfax in command and Cromwell as Lieutenant-General of cavalry and second-in-command. By this time, the Parliamentarians' field army outnumbered the King's by roughly two to one.”

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