The Founding of the National Guard
By order of the Massachusetts General Court in Salem, all able-boded men with the exception of ministers and judges shall form into regiments. These men shall be of age 16 to 60 and the regiments shall be three... the North, South and East Regiments. They shall be called upon in need for the defense of the colony. By this order, the United States National Guard marks its beginnings. The actual term "National Guard" won't be used until 1824 when Lafayette (yes, THAT Lafayette) will be formally welcomed to New York City by the 2nd Battalion of the 11th New York Artillery (later to be known as the 7th Regiment). They will use the name "National Guard" to honor Lafayette, the commander of the National Guard of Paris. The name will stick.    
The Founding of Providence, Rhode Island
Roger Williams is a preacher but he hasn't been a good fit for the Massachusetts Bay colony. He's a little too strict. He doesn't fit in with the Separatist Pilgrims either. (Separatists think that the Puritans are too easy going.) Roger Williams believes in religious tolerance and the separation of Church and State. He thinks it is wrong to take Indian lands and he finds slavery abhorrent although he can live with a defensive war against the Indians. He is causing discord in the religious community and he refuses to change his ways so he is cast out. Unfortunately, when he is cast out he is also ill so they grant him a temporary reprieve until he is well. Then he is sent beyond the borders of their jurisdiction. He finds a place with good farm land and calls it Providence... in gratitude for God's mercy. It's not a city yet, but Roger Williams is not the only one who doesn't fit in well with the Massachusetts Bay colony. Roger is going to have a lot of company.    
The Founding of Everything Else! *
- * The 1st Synagogue of the New World is founded in Brazil: Congregation Rock of Israel. It is now a museum. 
- * Harvard University gets its start as New College. The name will change after the donation of a library by John Harvard. 
- * The Manchu Dynasty in China is established after a successful revolution of farmers against the Ming Dynasty. 
- * Dedham, Massachusetts is founded. In 1643 they will establish the first tax-supported public school. 
- * Oxford University Press is licensed to print The King James Bible after the Adulterer's Bible scandal. 
- * Henry Adams arrives in Massachusetts. President John Adams was a 6th generation descendant of Henry Adams. 
This Year on Wikipedia
Year 1636, Wikipedia.
- * The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
- History of the Army National Guard. About.com (2015). Retrieved on 1 September 2015. “America's first permanent militia regiments, among the oldest continuing units in history, were organized by the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1636. Since that time, the Guard has participated in every U.S. conflict from the Pequot War of 1637 to our current deployments in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (Iraq).”
- The National Guard - About the Army National Guard. The National Guard (OFFICIAL SITE) (December 13, 2011). Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved on 1 September 2015. “Militia companies were formed with the first English settlement at Jamestown in 1607. The first militia regiments were organized by the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1636, and from the Pequot War in 1637 until the present day, the Army National Guard has participated in every war or conflict this nation has fought.”
- Born from humble beginnings, the National Guard celebrates its 375th birthday. The National Guard (OFFICIAL SITE) (December 12, 2011). Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved on 1 September 2015. “The military organization we know today as the National Guard came into existence with a direct declaration on December 13, 1636. On this date, the Massachusetts General Court in Salem, for the first time in the history of the North American continent, established that all able-bodied men between the ages of 16 and 60 were required to join the militia. The North, South, and East Regiments were established with this order. The decree excluded ministers and judges. Simply stated, citizen-soldiers who mustered for military training could be and would be called upon to fight when needed.”
- Army National Guard - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 1 September 2015. “The first use of the term 'National Guard' by American militia units dates from Lafayette's 1824–1825 tour of the United States.”
- Bernard Bailyn. The Barbarous Years: The Peopling of British North America: The Conflict of Civilizations, 1600–1675. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 9780307960825. “More recently the more respectable Capt. John Oldham was murdered and partly dismembered by the Narragansetts on Block Island, precisely when doubts about Cotton and Wheelwright were beginning to disturb the colony. An expedition to the island (August 1636) to revenge Oldham's murder failed, but news of bloody attacks continued, and fears grew that the Pequots, who refused to give up Stone’s murderers, were planning an attack.”
- Helge Ingstad. The Apache Indians: In Search of the Missing Tribe, Jeanine K. Stenehjem (translator), University of Nebraska Press. 0803225040. ISBN 0803225040.
- Alex Shrugged notes: As I recall the story, the Apache finally gave up when some enterprising bureaucrat decided to give the Apache chief cattle and let it be his responsibility to pass out this benefit to deserving fellow tribesmen. This was essentially welfare, and the Apache lost initiative when all they had to do was gain the favor of the chief to get "free stuff."
- Providence, Rhode Island. woonsocket.org (2002). Retrieved on 24 August 2015. “One of the oldest cities in the United States, Providence was founded by Roger Williams in 1636 after he was banished from the Massachusetts colony for his religious views.”
- A Brief History of the Colony of Rhode Island, 1630-1690. CelebrateBoston.com (2015). Retrieved on 24 August 2015. “Accordingly, about the middle of June, 1636, he embarked in a canoe with five others, and proceeded down the Narragansett River to a spot near the mouth of the Moshassuck. This he selected as a place of settlement, which, in grateful remembrance of the mercies of God, he called Providence.”
- History of Providence, Rhode Island. Ancestry.com (2015). Retrieved on 24 August 2015. “The great principle of soul-liberty was so deeply rooted in his very nature, that the persecutions and trials of his fellow countrymen had no effect in changing his opinions, and he was finally banished from their midst, as a dangerous element in the formation of New England society. This decree of banishment was pronounced Nov. 3, 1635. On account of feeble health, permission was sought and granted, for him to remain until spring, when he should depart, and return no more within their jurisdiction, upon penalty of death.”
- Bernard Bailyn. The Barbarous Years: The Peopling of British North America: The Conflict of Civilizations, 1600–1675. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 9780307960825. “Whether it was his insistence on the separation of church and state that caused the rift, or his publicized argument that the English had no right to seize the Indians’ land, or his belief in absolute religious toleration--none of which the Pilgrims could accept--is not known. All these ideas, formulated with great acuity, probably played a role.”
- 'All Lives Matter' march draws more than 20,000 in Alabama. WBRC FOX6 - Birmingham, AL (August 29, 2015). Retrieved on 1 September 2015. “More than 20,000 people including actor Chuck Norris marched the streets of Alabama to bring awareness and raise funds for persecuted Christians in the Middle East.”
- Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 31 August 2015. “It was established by Spanish/Portuguese Jews that had taken refuge in the Netherlands fleeing forced conversion and were joined by New Christians who were already living in the colony.”
- John Harvard (clergyman) - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 31 August 2015. “In an oral will spoken to his wife the childless Harvard, who had inherited considerable sums from his father, mother, and brother, bequeathed to the school £780 (half of his monetary estate, with the remainder to his wife) as well as—and perhaps more importantly—his 320-volume scholar's library.”
- Qing dynasty - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 31 August 2015. “The Qing dynasty was founded not by Han Chinese, who form the majority of the Chinese population, but by a sedentary farming people known as the Jurchen, a Tungusic people who lived around the region now comprising the Chinese provinces of Jilin and Heilongjiang.”
- Dedham, Massachusetts - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 31 August 2015. “On January 1, 1643, by unanimous vote, Dedham authorized the first taxpayer-funded public school, 'the seed of American education.'”
- A Short History of Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press (OFFICIAL SITE) (2014). Retrieved on 31 August 2015. “The University also established its right to print the King James Authorized Version of the Bible in the seventeenth century. This Bible Privilege formed the basis of OUP's publishing activities throughout the next two centuries.”
- John Adams - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 31 August 2015. “His father was a fifth-generation descendant of Henry Adams, who emigrated from Braintree, Essex in England to Braintree, Massachusetts in 1632–1633.”