30 Years' War: Religion vs Nationalism
This is no longer a religious war. France's plan to weaken the Holy Roman Emperor by backing a Protestant army is now in tatters. The Swedish army as an invasion force has been doing a credible job even after the death of Swedish King Gustav the 2nd. Luckily for France, Emperor Ferdinand the 2nd had his best General, Albrecht von Wallenstein, assassinated last year for having too big of an ego and acting unilaterally. A general with too much of an ego tends to make the civil leadership nervous. (President Truman fired General MacArthur for something similar.) Emperor Ferdinand the 2nd has rescinded the Edict of Restitution and ends the German civil war. With a (more or less) unified Germany, France is in real trouble. It is surrounded by a powerful Emperor in Vienna and the King of Spain in the south. Both are from the House of Habsburg. France is from the House of Bourbon so France declares war against Spain. The 30 Years' War has become a fight between nations. The fact that the nations are all Catholic is meaningless. Millions will die just the same.    
Japan Enforces Its Borders with the Death Penalty *
Japan has been tightening up on its border restrictions for years but now its getting serious. Nobody in or out. Any Japanese national who leaves the country is subject to the death penalty. Europeans who attempt to enter Japanese territories are subject to the death penalty. Christianity is banned. Pictures of Jesus and Mary are placed on the floor and suspected Christians are forced to walk over them. Any hesitation means you are punished severely. Trade with the outside world is restricted to Nagasaki and only with the Chinese and the Dutch. Border enforcement will continue until 1853 when Commodore Perry will show up. He will turn his guns toward shore and fire in celebration of the 4th of July. The shots will be blanks but the Japanese will get the message loud and clear.  
Alex Haley's Roots: John Waller Comes to Virginia
Alex Haley's book, "Roots," is an account of his ancestry from African slave to American slave to a free man trying to find his roots by tracing back a family story passed from generation to generation. According to the book, the Waller family moves from England to Virginia in this year. A few generations will pass before a different John Waller will buy an African slave named 'Kunta" to work in his fields. Did the Wallers really sail from England at this time? The records are sparse but by all accounts, yes. A Colonel John Waller did travel from England to Virginia to colonize. Beyond that, who knows?   
This Year on Wikipedia
Year 1635, Wikipedia.
- * The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
- Absolute Monarchs: A History of the Papacy. Random House. “The Swedes were relegated to a minor role, and Richelieu took over the leadership, allying France with Sweden and declaring war on Spain in May 1635. Henceforth the protagonists on both sides were Catholics, and a war which had been begun on purely religious issues became political—no longer a contest between Catholic and Protestant but now one between the Habsburg and Bourbon houses.”
- Peace of Prague (1635) - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 28 August 2015. “The Peace of Prague of 30 May 1635 was a treaty between the Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand II and the Electorate of Saxony representing most of the Protestant states of the Holy Roman Empire. It effectively brought to an end the civil war aspect of the Thirty Years' War; however, the combat actions still carried on due to the continued intervention on German soil by Spain, Sweden, and, from mid-1635, France, until the Peace of Westphalia was concluded in 1648.”
- Habsburg Spain - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 31 August 2015. “Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when Spain was ruled by the major branch of the Habsburg dynasty (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe). The Habsburg rulers (chiefly Charles I and Philip II) reached the zenith of their influence and power, controlling territory, including the Americas, the East Indies, the Low Countries and territories now in France and Germany in Europe, the Portuguese Empire from 1580 to 1640, various other territories such as small enclaves like Ceuta and Oran in North Africa. This period of Spanish history has also been referred to as the 'Age of Expansion'.”
- Truman relieves MacArthur of duties in Korea - Apr 11, 1951. history.com (2015). Retrieved on 31 August 2015. “Problems with the flamboyant and egotistical General MacArthur had been brewing for months.[...] MacArthur then asked for permission to bomb communist China and use Nationalist Chinese forces from Taiwan against the People’s Republic of China. Truman flatly refused these requests and a very public argument began to develop between the two men.”
- Kerry Indicates US Will Defend Iran from Israel. Israel National News (Arutz Sheva, Arutz Seven) (July 24, 2015). Retrieved on 31 August 2015. “'I don't see any way possible that we will be in conflict with Israel with respect to what we might want to do there, and I think we just have to wait until we get to that point,' responded the secretary of state [John F. Kerry], essentially indicating that America's actions won't be clear until the moment of truth.”
- Sakoku - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 27 August 2015. “Sakoku ('locked country') was the foreign relations policy of Japan under which no foreigner could enter nor could any Japanese leave the country on penalty of death.”
- Sakoku Edict of 1635 - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 27 August 2015. “The Japanese were to be kept within Japan’s own boundaries. Strict rules were set to prevent them from leaving the country, and if any such attempt was made, they would face penalty of death. Europeans that entered Japan illegally would face the death penalty as well.”
- Republican debate: Donald Trump still focus of campaign after sprawling fight. The Guardian (August 7, 2015). Retrieved on 31 August 2015. “Trump defended some of his controversial ideas, including the theory that Mexico actively sends criminals across the border to the United States because our leaders are 'stupid' and take care of the illegal immigrants. He proposed a wall 'with a beautiful door'.”
- Alex Haley. Roots. Doubleday. 0385037872. ISBN 0385037872. “And walking outside, she showed him the grave and its lettered tombstone. After a minute, as Kunta stared at it, she asked with a rehearsed casualness, 'You wanna know what it say?' Kunta nodded his head, and rapidly she 'read' the long since memorized inscription: 'Sacred to Memory of Colonel John Waller, Gentleman, third son of John Waller and Mary Key, who settled in Virginia in 1635, from Newport Paganel, Buckinghamshire.'”
- Prospect Hill (Spotsylvania County, Virginia) - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 26 August 2015.
- Donald R. Wright (2011). "THE EFFECT OF ALEX HALEY'S "ROOTS" ON HOW GAMBIANS REMEMBER THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE". History in Africa (African Studies Association) 38: 295-318. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41474553.
- Alex Shrugged notes: A book that does this correctly is Erik Larson's, "In the Garden of Beasts" where he writes the biography of the American Ambassador to Germany during the rise of Hitler.
- Morris, Edmund. Dutch: A Memoir of Ronald Reagan. Random House. ISBN 0394555082.
- Larson, Erik. In the Garden of Beasts: Love, Terror, and an American Family in Hitler’s Berlin. Crown. ISBN 9780307408846.