1629

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The Edict of Restitution: The Stuff Has Really Hit the Fan Now

Simply put... all property that was once owned by the Catholic Church 74 years ago and now held by Protestants, must be returned to the Catholic Church even though the Protestants had paid good money for it. No payback. No way back. Just do it or die. This is a major turning point in the 30 Years' War. General von Wallenstein and his 30,000 troops are enforcing the edict and except for the city of Magdeburg (a major city) the transfer is going smoothly if sullenly. This and previous successes by Wallenstein will make Emperor Ferdinand the 2nd nervous, thus causing him to forcibly retire Wallenstein to his estates. That lapse in judgment will leave an opening for the Protestant King Gustav the 2nd of Sweden to move troops into Germany to challenge the Emperor with the help of Cardinal Richelieu of France. That move will change everything. [1] [2] [3] [4]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
So... how did we get to a place where taking people's property (especially religious property) seemed like a good idea? The problem had been building for the last 74 years since a previous Emperor negotiated a treaty to separate the Catholics and Protestants by province, transfer religious property as needed, and let people move to communities that shared their beliefs. But over the years, conquests at the borders of provinces caused towns to switch religious affiliation several times. Lax enforcement of religious separation, allowed mixing of religious communities, and Emperor Ferdinand the 2nd believed that maintaining such a separation was an implied acceptance of a second Christian religion. Because the Emperor was winning the war, he took the opportunity to force the Protestants back into the Catholic Church, but Cardinal Richelieu saw that the Emperor was becoming too strong, and would eventually turn his victorious armies on France so the Cardinal paid for King Gustav of Sweden to attack and weaken the Emperor.

The English Parliament Gets the Boot as 11 Years of Tyranny Begins *

The Duke of Buckingham was assassinated last year... having been an embarrassingly incompetent military leader and escaping impeachment from the English Parliament only by intervention by King Charles the 1st. The public was ecstatic with the Duke's death and venerated the assassin even after King Charles had the man executed. Although King Charles is doing nothing beyond the normal powers of previous English kings, he is definitely ruling against the popular sentiment of his subjects. With a crushing economic depression in progress, and his religious persecution of the Puritans, the King's subjects are escaping in droves for the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Since the Duke had been the King's advisor on foreign policy, and there is no war going on at this time, and since Parliament has been giving him such a hard time, King Charles dissolves Parliament and rules Great Britain alone. This is the beginning of 11 years of tyranny, leading to a civil war, followed by his trail for treason and the beheading of King Charles the 1st in 1649. [5] [6] [7] [8]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
The 1st Duke of Buckingham, George Villiers, is a prime example of the problem of promoting someone based on favoritism rather than on merit. This was mostly the error of King James the 1st who liked George's angelic face. King James bought him clothing and guided his career is such a way as to make sure George was always near the King. Eventually he made George a Duke. If this all sounds a little strange, well, it sounded strange to historians too. After King James died, King Charles kept the Duke around as an advisor. The Duke seemed to be not very good at the details of warfare as if he knew generally what to do but didn't realize that his troops required organization, discipline and training. A good example is when the Duke attacked France. On paper the plan looked perfectly reasonable, but once his troops came ashore, they found a warehouse filled with wine and thereafter all discipline was lost. After a drunken party they managed to escape without accomplishing much of anything. That was one of the Duke's better missions. I've known many people that I could hang out with but could never work with. [9] [10]

This Year on Wikipedia

Year 1629, Wikipedia.

See Also

References

* The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
  1. Edict of Restitution - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 19 August 2015. “The Edict of Restitution, passed eleven years into the Thirty Years' Wars on March 6, 1629 following Catholic successes at arms, was a belated attempt by Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor to impose and restore the religious and territorial situations reached in the Peace of Augsburg (1555).”
  2. Peace of Augsburg - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 19 August 2015. “The Peace established the principle Cuius regio, eius religio, which allowed Holy Roman Empire's states' princes to select either Lutheranism or Catholicism within the domains they controlled, ultimately reaffirming the independence they had over their states.”
  3. The Age of Reason Begins: A History of European Civilization in the Period of Shakespeare, Bacon, Montaigne, Rembrandt, Galileo, and Descartes: 1558-1648, The Story Of Civilization. Simon and Schuster. “Whenever resistance was attempted Wallenstein's soldiers were called in, and opposition collapsed everywhere except at Magdeburg, which successfully withstood Wallenstein's siege. Entire cities – Augsburg, Rothenburg, Dortmund – and thirty towns passed into Catholic hands; so did five bishoprics and a hundred monasteries. Hundreds of Catholic parishes were reconstituted.” 
  4. Albrecht von Wallenstein - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 19 August 2015. “Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein (24 September 1583 - 25 February 1634), also von Waldstein, was a Bohemian military leader and politician, who offered his services, and an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men during the Thirty Years' War (1618-48), to the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. He became the supreme commander of the armies of the Habsburg Monarchy and a major figure of the Thirty Years' War.”
  5. Personal Rule - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 19 August 2015. “Charles had already dissolved three Parliaments by the third year of his reign in 1628. After the murder of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, who was deemed to have a negative influence on Charles' foreign policy, Parliament began to criticize the king more harshly than before. Charles then realized that, as long as he could avoid war, he could rule without Parliament.”
  6. The Age of Reason Begins: A History of European Civilization in the Period of Shakespeare, Bacon, Montaigne, Rembrandt, Galileo, and Descartes: 1558-1648, The Story Of Civilization. Simon and Schuster. “War with France raised taxes, war in France disrupted the export trade, bad harvests (1629-30) inflated prices to the verge of starvation; the swelling economy burst in depressions (1629-32, 1638). All these factors collaborated with religious strife to drive many English families to America, and to plunge England into a civil war that changed the face and destiny of the nation.” 
  7. The Age of Reason Begins: A History of European Civilization in the Period of Shakespeare, Bacon, Montaigne, Rembrandt, Galileo, and Descartes: 1558-1648, The Story Of Civilization. Simon and Schuster. “Theoretically he was claiming no more than James, Elizabeth, and Henry VIII; practically he was claiming more, for they had never stretched the royal prerogative so near the breaking point as Charles was doing by levying unsanctioned taxes, forcing loans, billeting soldiers on citizens, making arbitrary arrests, denying prisoners the rights of habeas corpus and trial by jury, extending the tyranny and severity of the Star Chamber in political, and of the Court of High Commission in ecclesiastical, trials. But Charles's basic mistake was his failure to recognize that the wealth now represented by the House of Commons was much greater than that wielded by or loyal to the King, and that the power of Parliament must be increased accordingly.” 
  8. George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 20 August 2015. “Such was the Duke's unpopularity by this time that Felton was widely acclaimed as a hero by the public. A large number of poems celebrating Felton and justifying his action were published. Copies of written statements Felton carried in his hat during the assassination were also widely circulated. Many of these described Buckingham as effeminate, cowardly and corrupt, and contrasted him with Felton who was held up and an example of manliness, courage and virtue.”
  9. George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 20 August 2015. “In August 1614 at age twenty-one, Villiers caught the eye of James I at a hunt in Apethorpe.[5] Opponents of the king's favourite Robert Carr saw an opportunity to usurp the Earl of Somerset and began promoting Villiers. Money was raised to purchase Villiers a new wardrobe and intense lobbying secured his appointment as royal Cupbearer, a position that allowed him to make conversation with the king.”
  10. The Age of Reason Begins: A History of European Civilization in the Period of Shakespeare, Bacon, Montaigne, Rembrandt, Galileo, and Descartes: 1558-1648, The Story Of Civilization. Simon and Schuster. “In 1615 King James fell in love, in his kindly ambidextrous way, with handsome, dashing, rich George Villiers, twenty-three. He made him Earl, then Marquis, then Duke of Buckingham and, after 1616, allowed him to direct the policies of the state.” 

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