The Little Ice Age and a Spartan Existence *
The number of hurricanes in the Atlantic jumps to 11 with 5 in August, 4 in September, and the other two may have been a continuation of other storms. Given that many of the reports consist of the loss of a ship rather than a satellite picture, one can only make an educated guess as to how bad they are. Damage is easier to measure when they make landfall even though it is hard on the residents. The Little Ice Age has increased the number and severity of the storms during this period. The number of people who have died from these storms has massed into the hundreds of thousands in the last few years. And that is not counting deaths due to famine and disease during this period. Sand tossed up by severe winds have buried entire towns, and destroyed farmland for miles inland, never to be restored to its former fertility. The temperature is only one-half to a full-degree lower than modern temperatures on average, but averages hide a lot of variability that kill crops and people.   
From Father to Son Since 1591
Budweiser and Beretta have stood the test of time but now a construction company in Great Britain joins the ranks of businesses that will survive into the modern day. John Durtnell gets married this year and lists his occupation as 'carpenter'. He and his brother, Brian, have teamed up to build what are called Wealden houses or "forest houses". One of their first projects is a house for their elderly father. The house has had several names down the centuries such as Poundsbridge Manor but most people call it "The Picture House" probably because it looks so interesting that it is regularly sketched by artists. John and Brian are craftsmen, passing down their skills from generation to generation. In the 7th generation, sometime after 1766, Richard Durtnell will turn that craft into something recognizable as a modern business. In the 9th generation, another Richard will formalize a partnership between himself and his sons. He will give the construction company it's modern name: "R. Durtnell & Sons".     
The Price of Revenge
The name "Revenge" has been given to many ships in the British Navy. The galleon HMS Revenge was commissioned in 1577. It led the attack against the Spanish Armada and chased the Armada until it rounded Ireland. In the years that followed it ran normal patrols, attempting to interdict Spanish shipping. When the Revenge came into port for maintenance, the Spanish fleet caught them flat-footed. Nevertheless, the officers and crew fought their ship well over several days until it became clear they should either surrender or scuttle the ship. Although the captain wanted to scuttle, the officers wanted to surrender so the Revenge became the only ship under Queen Elizabeth the 1st to surrender to Spain.  
This Year on Wikipedia
Year 1591, Wikipedia.
- * The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
- List of Atlantic hurricanes before 1600 - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 9 June 2015.
- Storminess Of The Little Ice Age. ClimateChangeDispatch.com (07 February 2014). Retrieved on 12 June 2015. “(quoting Brian Fagan, in 'The Little Ice Age') ...throughout Europe, the years 1560-1600 were cooler and stormier, with late wine harvests and considerably stronger winds than those of the 20th Century. Storm activity increased by 85% in the second half of the 16th Century and the incidence of severe storms rose by 400%.”
- Andrew B. Appleby (April 1980). Epidemics and Famine in the Little Ice Age. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 10. The MIT Press. pp. 643-663. http://www.jstor.org/stable/203063.
- R. Durtnell & Sons - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 9 June 2015. “R. Durtnell & Sons is an English building company established in 1591 that has been continuously in the same family in Brasted, in the English county of Kent since that time. The first building it constructed, Poundsbridge Manor (also called The Picture House), was completed in 1593, and it was the same firm that restored the house following bomb damage in World War II.”
- The first recorded house, built by John Dartnall and his brother Brian, was an oak-framed property called Poundsbridge Manor.. durtnell.co.uk (2014). Retrieved on 10 June 2015. “The first recorded mention of building, as opposed to property, in the family - and hence the year from which Durtnell dates its existence - is 22 July 1591, when John Dartnall married Ann Hearst, registering his profession as 'carpenter', synonymous with 'builder' at a time when most houses were of timber-framed construction.”
- Business tips from UK's oldest family firms. BBC News (2015). Retrieved on 10 June 2015. “The tenth and eleventh generations of the Hoare family run the bank today and the company says the secret to their longevity is adhering to their core values and ethos - 'to treat others as we would wish to be treated'.”
- Britain's oldest builder R Durtnell and Sons from Brasted, near Westerham, appears in BBC Four documentary Hidden Histories. kentonline.co.uk (29 January 2014). Retrieved on 10 June 2015. “The oldest of these which still survives is Poundsbridge Manor, just outside Penshurst, built in 1593.”
- R. Durtnell & Sons - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 10 June 2015. “The oak timber-framed house Poundsbridge Manor, nicknamed 'The Picture House', was built in 1593 by John and Brian Durtnall for their father William, Rector of Penshurst from 1563 to 1596. Originally, it was called 'Durtnolls' and it has an inscription '1593 WD ETA 69'. WD are the initials of William Durtnell and the letter D, looking like an inverted Q, is the Gothic form of the letter.”
- English ship Revenge (1577) - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 9 June 2015. “Revenge came to her end in a glorious but bizarre episode that has become a legend. In order to impede a Spanish naval recovery after the Armada, Sir John Hawkins proposed a blockade of the supply of treasure being acquired from the Spanish Empire in America by a constant naval patrol designed to intercept Spanish ships. Revenge, was on such a patrol in the summer of 1591 under the command of Sir Richard Grenville.”
- HMS Revenge (1577) Spanish Ships Fleet Ship English Sir Battle. economicexpert.com (2015). Retrieved on 12 June 2015. “After an assurance of proper conduct, and having held off dozens of Spanish ships, the Revenge at last surrendered, becoming the only English ship to be captured by the Spaniards in that Elizabethan conflict. The injured Captain Grenville died of wounds two days later aboard the Spanish flagship.”