1582

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Back to the Future: The Gregorian Calendar *

Pope Gregory the 13th introduces the Gregorian calendar. It replaces the Julian calendar which has been drifting from its connection to the traditional names of the months. (Example: December means the 10th month, but it's not the 10th month.) The Julian calendar adds an extra day every 4 years but its too much of a correction, adding a little over 11 minutes to every year. This is interfering with the calculation of the religious holidays, particularly Easter, so the Pope commissioned the mathematician Christoph Clau to come up with a solution. He uses leap years, but with special rules... [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400.
My Take by Alex Shrugged
New Year's Day changed to January 1st. (It used to be a few days before Easter.) They also time-traveled from Thursday, October 4th to Friday, October 15th to realign the religious holidays. Naturally, acceptance of the new calendar lagged. Alaska switched to the Gregorian calendar in 1867. In some countries, the people rioted, demanding their missing days back. After all... if you had a contract with a delivery date certain, you just lost time for production and transport. Fewer work days meant a smaller paycheck that month for rent. In the modern day the scientists monitoring the Mars Rover have a drifting work schedule. Mars has a rotation of 24 hours, 39.5 minutes, so a scientist starting the day shift on Mars-time will be working the graveyard shift on Earth-time after a few weeks as the planet times drift out of sync. [8] [9]

My apologies: In the history segment for 1469 I said that the Gregorian calendar has a leap year, but said nothing about how the Julian calendar is calculated, thus implying that the Julian calendar did not have one. It has one but it is an over-correction.

The Douay Catholic Bible Translation

To this point, the Catholic Church has been resisting a translation of the Bible into English, depending instead on Saint Jerome's 4th century Latin translation, but most people don't read Latin. The Protestants have been winning the "social media" war with Bibles translated into the vernacular. The Catholics believe the translations are biased. (FYI, all translations are biased. Every single one. No exceptions.) Now the Catholic Church can address those concerns with their own English translation prepared by the Catholic seminary in Douay, France. It remains the basis of the modern translation that the Catholic Church uses today. [10] [11] [12]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
As I have said before, every translation is an interpretation. The translator is choosing from several words in English that best convey what the original text is trying to communicate. It is perfectly reasonable for disagreements to occur between translators as to what is the most important (or least misleading) idea to present to the reader. Each translation not only leaves out important meanings but adds meanings that are not in the original text. It is the duty of the reader of any translation to remember this and look up troublesome Bible passages to make sure it says what you think it says, but I'm not your father. It's up to you to handle the issue in your own way or not handle it at all.

'The Ambition of Oda Nobuna' is Not Just a TV Show

With the deaths of so many leaders in his fighting force, Lord Oda Nobuna has been struggling to maintain control over Kyoto and the surrounding area. He is sending out the leaders he has left to strengthen his armies but in sending them away, he becomes vulnerable himself. He has been one of the three unifying figures in Japanese history, but when one of his generals sees this opening, Nobuna realizes he is a goner. As the general approaches the temple to kill him, Nobuna has his aide, Ran, set fire to the temple. He then speaks these last words to his aide before committing suicide, "Ran, don't let them come in...." Ran also commits suicide. The body of Oda Nobuna is never found, leading to much speculation, and some myth. He remains a mythical figure in Japan to this day. [13] [14] [15]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
He also has his own video game and TV show! The TV show is listed on the Anime Network as 'The Ambition of Oda Nobuna'. His character is gender-flipped into a girl with a mean temper and a lot of ambition. Obviously, the character bears little resemblance to the real figure of history. Cultural references are made to Oda Nobuna throughout Japanese entertainment including novels, manga, and such. In other words, everyone knows his name even if they don't know why he was important to Japan.

This Year on Wikipedia

Year 1582, Wikipedia.

See Also

References

* The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
  1. In Our Time, The Calendar. BBC Radio 4 (19 December 2002). Retrieved on 26 May 2015. “Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the calendar, which shapes the lives of millions of people. It is an invention that gives meaning to the passing of time and orders our daily existence.”
  2. Calendar Converter. Fourmilab (November 2009). Retrieved on 26 May 2015. “The Gregorian calendar was proclaimed by Pope Gregory XIII and took effect in most Catholic states in 1582, in which October 4, 1582 of the Julian calendar was followed by October 15 in the new calendar, correcting for the accumulated discrepancy between the Julian calendar and the equinox as of that date. When comparing historical dates, it's important to note that the Gregorian calendar, used universally today in Western countries and in international commerce, was adopted at different times by different countries.”
  3. Gregorian calendar - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 8 February 2015.
  4. The Perpetual Calendar. norbyhus.dk (2015). Retrieved on 26 May 2015. “To avoid this increasing difference between date and Equinox Pope Gregorius XIII (with the help of the astronomer Christopher Clavius (1537-1612)) in 1582 declared that the day after 4 October 1582 should be 15 October 1582 and then Equinox again would fall on 21 March. Furthermore the rule for leap years (which said that years divisible with 4 should be leap years) was changed so that years, at the end of the century, should be leap years only if they were divisible with 400 (e.g. 1600, 2000, 2400 etc.). Finally, he declared that this new calendar changed the first day of the year to 1 January which - as mentioned above - has been practised since 153 BC.”
  5. Christopher Clavius - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 26 May 2015. “In 1579 he was assigned to compute the basis for a reformed calendar that would stop the slow process in which the Church's holidays were drifting relative to the seasons of the year. Using the Prussian Tables of Erasmus Reinhold and building on the work of Aloysius Lilius, he proposed a calendar reform that was adopted in 1582 in Catholic countries by order of Pope Gregory XIII and is now the Gregorian calendar used worldwide.”
  6. Christopher Clavius (1537-1612). The Galileo Project (1995). Retrieved on 26 May 2015. “Because of his prodigious output of mathematical works, he was called 'the Euclid of the sixteenth century.' Through his teaching and textbooks, and also through several mathematical curricula drafted by him, Clavius shaped mathematical education in the Jesuit order all over the world.”
  7. Julian calendar - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 26 May 2015. “Although Greek astronomers had known, at least since Hipparchus, a century before the Julian reform, that the tropical year was a few minutes shorter than 365.25 days, the calendar did not compensate for this difference. As a result, the calendar year gained about three days every four centuries compared to observed equinox times and the seasons.”
  8. Why NASA's rover team lives on Mars time. io9.com (September 3, 2012). Retrieved on 26 May 2015. “While most of us here on Earth enjoy a mere 24 hours in our day, the scientists working on the Curiosity rover at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory are living according to the Mars solar day — called a sol — which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, and 35.24409 seconds.”
  9. The Perpetual Calendar. norbyhus.dk (2015). Retrieved on 26 May 2015. “The October 18, 1867 is Gregorian, and from that date forward the U.S. administered Alaska using that calendar. The pre-1867 Russian records are based on the Julian calendar, as are Russian Orthodox church records for a number of years after the transfer.”
  10. Ward, Bernard. Douay Bible. The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 29-Jun-2014 [last update]
  11. Douay-Rheims Bible - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 26 May 2015. “The Douay-Rheims Bible (also known as the Rheims-Douai Bible or Douai Bible, and abbreviated as D-R and DV) is a translation of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English made by members of the English College, Douai, in the service of the Catholic Church.”
  12. Vulgate - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 26 May 2015. “The translation was largely the work of St. Jerome, who, in 382, was commissioned by Pope Damasus I to revise the Vetus Latina ('Old Latin') collection of Biblical texts in Latin then in use by the Church. Once published, it was widely adopted and eventually eclipsed the Vetus Latina and, by the 13th century, was known as the 'versio vulgata' (the 'version commonly-used') or, more simply, in Latin as vulgata or in Greek as ('Vulgate').”
  13. Nobunaga's Ambition - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 26 May 2015. “One of the first games in its genre, it was first released in March 1983 by the Japanese video game developer Koei.”
  14. Oda Nobunaga (Video Game). Sengoku BASARA Wiki (2015). Retrieved on 26 May 2015. “In Sengoku Basara 3, most of Nobunaga's attacks can have a follow-up attacks, usually done by holding its attack button (though in some cases, the follow-up is done by merely tapping the button, not holding it).”
  15. Oda Nobunaga. TV Tropes - Useful Notes (2015). Retrieved on 26 May 2015. “Credited as being the first of the Three Unifiers of modern Japan, Nobunaga was one of Japan's most successful warlords.”

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