1575

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Everyone is Singing from the Same Sheet of Music *

Queen Elizabeth the 1st grants the 1st patent in England. Surprise! It's a patent to control music copying. Thomas Tallis and his student, William Byrd are granted exclusive rights to print their sheet music and music paper which has lines to compose music. However their first music book will not be well received (meaning that it will not sell well) because they publish a very large body of work in one book and people don't want to spend their money on so large a publication, regardless of how good it might be. The composers will return to the Queen and beg for help. She will grant them a leasehold on various properties for 21 years which is the length of the patent. It is essentially an artist's royal subsidy which is considered normal for the time. Getting a monopoly from the government to sell a single type of product is not normal for the time. [1] [2] [3] [4]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
When I reviewed Thomas Tallis's music, I was stunned at how good it sounds. It is polyphonic like the modern music you'd hear in the background of a movie. I see why an aristocrat would want to subsidize composers like this but granting them exclusive rights to print music would be like having Reba McIntire as the only person who could legally publish CDs (including blank CDs). This would force every artist to go through her before they could sell a single song on CD... including hip-hop singers... while she is trying to sell her own music. (Guess how that would work out.) But Tallis and Byrd's marketing problem was the equivalent of creating an album with 100 songs and pricing the album at $100. Even if the songs were first-rate, and it was only $1 a song, the "entrance fee" would be a little too steep for most people. [5] [6]

And the Waters Parted... The Valdivia Earthquake

The waters part. 50 to 100 homes collapse. The earth opens up as an 8.5 magnitude earthquake hits Chile near the mouth of the Valdivia River. The Valdivia river seemingly runs uphill as it splits like the Red Sea. For the next 40 days, aftershocks will cause landslides and tsunamis that will continue killing Indians but no Spaniards. The death toll will be over 1,000. In 1960, a 9.5 (surface wave) magnitude earthquake will strike Valdivia. In terms of death and damage, the worst earthquake ever recorded occurred in China in 1556 when 830,000 died. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
A surface wave earthquake tends to cause the most movement in the needle on the seismometer (size-MOM-mih-tur), but not necessarily the most energy released. This makes it difficult to make a comparison between earthquakes when they use a different scale. And quakes that occurred before there was a Richter scale are estimates based on the damage they caused. Some people suggest that the longer time between earthquakes, the more severe the next earthquake will be, so they want to set off an earthquake early, but the scientific evidence does not support this idea. Valdivia had many smaller earthquakes between 1575 and 1960. They didn't lessen the 1960 earthquake. [13]

The 1st Modern Battle Tactics Used in Japan

All the elements of modern battle tactics come into play for the first time in Japan: the cavalry charge, firearms fired in volley, and from behind cover. Although firearms are not decisive, they are used in effective volleys rather than fired once to break up a charge and then cast away as the melee begins. Barricades are set up to protect the gunmen and to force the cavalry to slow down. Nagashino castle is held by the Oda clan, and it has been interfering with the Takeda clan's supply line so it must taken out. This is the rainy season so the Takeda clan believes a cavalry charge will succeed because the castle gunpowder is probably too wet. Unfortunately for the Takeda clan, the gunpowder is fine. The ground in front of the barricades is soft from the rain and with volley fire from the Oda, it soon becomes a war of attrition until a group of Oda samurai outflank the Takeda and hit them from behind. This battle becomes the turning point of the war. The Takeda clan will hang on for a few more years but its days are numbered. [14] [15] [16] [17]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
The Battle of Nagashino is a little more elaborate that I can describe here. It was a great effort on both sides and has become the subject of the video game "Shogun 2" (2011). This battle has also inspired annual battle reenactments in Japan similar to American Civil War reenactments. It attracts all sorts of enthusiasts. It was also made into a lengthy TV series... all in Japanese. [18]

This Year on Wikipedia

Year 1575, Wikipedia.

See Also

References

* The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
  1. Thomas Tallis. Encyclopedia Britannica (2015). Retrieved on 12 May 2015. “On January 21, 1575, Queen Elizabeth granted Tallis and Byrd the monopoly for printing music and music paper in England; that was the first instance of letters patent issued for that purpose.”
  2. Thomas Tallis - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 12 May 2015. “Tallis had exclusive rights to print any music, in any language. He and William Byrd were the only ones allowed to use the paper that was used in printing music. Tallis and Byrd used their monopoly to produce Cantiones quae ab argumento sacrae vocantur but the collection did not sell well and they appealed to Queen Elizabeth for her support.”
  3. William Byrd - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 14 May 2015. “The Cantiones were a financial failure. In 1577 Byrd and Tallis were forced to petition Queen Elizabeth for financial help, pleading that the publication had 'fallen oute to oure greate losse' and that Tallis was now 'verie aged'. They were subsequently granted the leasehold on various lands in East Anglia and the West Country for a period of 21 years.”
  4. What is Leasehold? definition and meaning. InvestorWords.com (2015). Retrieved on 14 May 2015. “The right to hold or use property for a fixed period of time at a given price, without transfer of ownership, on the basis of a lease contract. A leasehold is a fixed asset.”
  5. Reba McEntire - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 14 May 2015. “Reba Nell McEntire (born March 28, 1955) is an American country music singer, songwriter and actress.”
  6. Spem In Alium. YouTube (2015). Retrieved on 14 May 2015. “This was composed for eight choirs allegedly for Queen Elizabeth the First's birthday.”
  7. Largest Earthquake Recorded. geology.com (2015). Retrieved on 14 May 2015. “The World's largest earthquake with an instrumentally documented magnitude occurred on May 22, 1960 near Valdivia, in southern Chile. It was assigned a magnitude of 9.5 by the United States Geological Survey.”
  8. Surface wave magnitude - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 13 May 2015. “It is based on measurements in Rayleigh surface waves that travel primarily along the uppermost layers of the earth.”
  9. 1960 Valdivia earthquake - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 13 May 2015. “It occurred in the afternoon (19:11 GMT, 15:11 local time), and lasted approximately 10 minutes. The resulting tsunami affected southern Chile, Hawaii, Japan, the Philippines, eastern New Zealand, southeast Australia, and the Aleutian Islands.”
  10. 1575 Valdivia earthquake - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 13 May 2015. “The 1575 Valdivia earthquake occurred in Chile and caused the subsequent flood of Valdivia much like the 1960 Valdivia earthquake caused the ensuing Riñihuazo flooding.”
  11. Significant Earthquake. NOAA (2015). Retrieved on 14 May 2015. “The tremors continued for a period of forty days. Sizeable cracks appeared in the ground and landslides were also recorded, a river flowing from Lake Riniue became blocked in its upper reaches. The dam lasted until April of the following year, when after prolonged rains the water level in the lake rose considerably, causing the dam to burst and resulting in much devastation farther downstream; more than 1200 Indians perished and many cattle were lost as well.”
  12. Valdivia - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 14 May 2015. “The city is named after its founder Pedro de Valdivia and is located at the confluence of the Calle-Calle, Valdivia, and Cau-Cau Rivers, approximately 15 km (9 mi) east of the coastal towns of Corral and Niebla.”
  13. Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F.; Torrejon, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristian et al. (September 15, 2005). "Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake". Nature.com. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v437/n7057/full/nature03943.html. Retrieved 14 May 2015. "It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5.". 
  14. Matchlocks rule the day again at festival commemorating 1575 Battle of Nagashino. The Asahi Shimbun (2015). Retrieved on 15 May 2015. “The battle is considered a turning point in Japanese warfare. During the fighting, warlord Oda Nobunaga, using newly introduced gun tactics and together with the forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu, are known to have defeated Takeda Katsuyori and his large cavalry force.”
  15. Battle it out in Shinshiro. The Japan Times (July 2, 2014). Retrieved on 15 May 2015. “The Battle of Shitaragahara, also known as the Battle of Nagashino, became recognized as a turning point for Japanese warfare because of Oda's effective use of guns. It was the first battle for which firearms played a major role in victory.”
  16. Battle of Nagashino - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 13 May 2015. “Nobunaga's skillful use of firearms to defeat Takeda's cavalry tactics is often cited as a turning point in Japanese warfare; many cite it as the first 'modern' Japanese battle. [...] Oda Nobunaga's innovation was the wooden stockades and rotating volleys of fire which led to a decisive victory at Nagashino.”
  17. Battle of Nagashino, 1575. The Art of Battle (2015). Retrieved on 15 May 2015. “Arquebuses did not decide this battle; that much should be clear. They showed a potential to be of great use but this battle did not single-handedly force arquebuses into every army.”
  18. Total War: Shogun 2 DLC adds decapitation, limb severing, blood, Hattori clan. PCGamer.com (November 30, 2011). Retrieved on 15 May 2015. “Yesterday, The Creative Assembly announced Fall of the Samurai , a massive standalone expansion for Shogun 2, with new factions, and expanded campaign map and devastating new weaponry. Here are a few screenshots of the DLC released today.”

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