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When is the King of Poland a Lot Like the King of France?

Last year, in the first election of a Polish King, Henry the 3rd of the House of Valois was made the King of Poland. His brother, Charles the 9th, is the King of France and the family resemblance is remarkable. What is also remarkable is that the King of France has now died without an heir so Henry the 3rd takes the French throne too. Poland and France are now ruled under one crown. However, Henry will be the last of his house. The French line of succession will move to the House of Bourbon upon his death in 1589 when he will be stabbed in the head by an assassin. [1]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
I found it interesting that the King of France was also the King of Poland for a time. All the royals are cross-related. I have a friend who is a naturalized American citizen but she was once a British subject. She tells me that while the Nazis were coming to power, the British Royals spoke German as their native tongue when not in public. They had changed their name to Windsor in 1917 during World War 1, when anti-German sentiment made their previous German name unpopular. It was Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Windsor is easier anyway. [2]

Europe's First Public Garden *

Ever since the large river near Seville was dammed up, the area below the dam has remained swampy. A natural aquifer has fed water into the area, keeping it too too wet for substantial development, so Count Don Francisco has drained the swamp, built some fountains and planted several rows of white poplar trees (also known as silver poplar) to create a promenade for a pleasant walk. The Alameda de Hercules is the first public garden in Europe (if you don't count Istanbul as "Europe"). The Alameda is best recognized in the modern day by the "Pillars of Hercules" that grace the north and south entrances to the promenade. The southern columns are the original columns from the Roman temple that existed in the Santa Cruz quarter. The columns meant for the northern entrance were damaged beyond repair so they are reproductions. [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
The Renaissance reintroduced private gardening but a garden for public use is new for Europe. White poplar trees are native to Spain and Portugal and they can be found near rivers so they were a perfect choice for the wet conditions found at the Alameda. They also tolerate salt and acidic soil so they are the kind of trees you need for tough soil conditions. I gave the impression that the Alameda simply got better and better but over the centuries it has undergone deterioration and renewal for several cycles. 10 years ago, the Alameda was the perfect place to find a night's companionship at reasonable prices or to find drugs. Now it is a site for trendy restaurants. Nothing stays the same or as I have been told many times... this too shall pass. [8]

The 5th 'War of Religion' or as It is Commonly Known: Thursday

When the year ends in an even or odd number, another "War of Religion" in France begins. Through a series of treaties and agreements, the Calvinist Huguenots have won a number of religious freedoms and a truce, but the truce always seems to fall apart. This time a group of Huguenots believe that with the recent death of the King of France and with the heir apparent in Poland, now is the time to strike. In a couple of years, the Huguenots will force concessions from the King when they threaten Paris. The King will acknowledge that the crown was wrong at the St. Bartholomew Day massacre even though this king didn't do it. (It was his brother.) And public worship for the Reformed Church (the Huguenots) will be allowed everywhere in France except Paris and at court. [9]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
FYI, no one is covered in glory here. The resentments on both sides are heart-felt and aren't going away simply because someone signed a paper granting freedom. And the French kings are losing their moral authority bit-by-bit. The deaths of 2 million people put a real dent in the king's popularity polls, if you know what I mean. It didn't matter whose fault it was. The king was supposed to maintain order and he just wasn't. The Huguenots were not a bunch of peasants with pitchforks. This was a rebellion led by the lower and mid-level aristocracy. They wanted change they could believe in and they were willing to die for it. And a lot of them did... die for it.

This Year on Wikipedia

Year 1574, Wikipedia.

See Also


* The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
  1. Henry III of France - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 12 May 2015. “Henry III (19 September 1551--2 August 1589; born Alexandre Édouard de France, Polish: Henryk Walezy, Lithuanian: Henrikas Valua) was a monarch of the House of Valois who was elected the monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575 and ruled as King of France from 1574 until his death. He was the last French monarch of the Valois dynasty.”
  2. House of Windsor - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 12 May 2015. “The House of Windsor is the royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. It was founded by King George V by royal proclamation on 17 July 1917, when he changed the name of the British Royal Family from the German Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (a branch of the House of Wettin) to the English Windsor, due to the anti-German sentiment in the British Empire during World War I.”
  3. Guadalquivir - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 12 May 2015. “The Guadalquivir river is the only great navigable river in Spain. Currently it is navigable to Seville, but in Roman times it was navigable to Córdoba.”
  4. La Alameda, Seville - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 12 May 2015. “In 1574, the Count of Barajas further drained the water, building irrigation channels and fountains, and planting lines of river trees (white poplars). Four columns were placed to mark off a promenade through the trees.”
  5. Condado de Barajas - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. es.wikipedia.org (2015). Retrieved on 12 May 2015. “I Don Francisco Zapata de Cisneros y Osorio casó con María de Mendoza, hija de Juan de Mendoza, hijo del (2nd) Conde de la Coruña y de María de Mendoza : Nació en 1520-1594.”
  6. Populus alba - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 12 May 2015. “Populus alba, commonly called abele, silver poplar, silverleaf poplar, or white poplar, is a species of poplar, most closely related to the aspens (Populus sect. Populus). It is native from Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula through central Europe (north to Germany and Poland) to central Asia. It grows in moist sites, often by watersides, in regions with hot summers and cold to mild winters.”
  7. Monuments in Seville, Spain.. Sevilla5.com (2010). Retrieved on 12 May 2015. “The Roman Empire occupied the city of Seville and nearby Italica for several centuries, leaving its footprint, with ruins and remnants scattered throughout the city and towns close by. Within Seville the Palacio de Lebrija holds an impressive collection of mosaics from Italica, while the Alameda de Hercules features columns from a roman temple, the rest of which can be found in the Santa Cruz quarter.”
  8. The Alameda district, The City of Seville, Sevilla Andalucia, Spain. andalucia.com (2015). Retrieved on 12 May 2015. “Ten years ago, Seville's more louche inhabitants (think ladies of the night, men in frocks, and controlled substances) inhabited the Alameda, which lies to the north of the centre. Now it's home to trendy bars, vegetarian restaurants, and those all-in-one bar-gallery-stores that were first hip in Soho, New York, about 20 years ago.”
  9. French Wars of Religion: Death of Charles IX and the 'fifth' war (1574-76) - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 12 May 2015. “In the absence of the duke of Anjou disputes between Charles and his youngest brother, the duke of Alençon, led to many Huguenots congregating around Alençon for patronage and support. A failed coup at Saint-Germain (February 1574), allegedly aiming to release Condé and Navarre who had been held at court since St Bartholemew's, coincided with rather successful Huguenot uprisings in other parts of France such as Lower Normandy, Poitou and the Rhône valley, which reinitiated hostilities.”

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