UFO Watch: Battle Over Nuremberg *
Several apparitions appear in the midst of the sun. The people of Nuremberg witness globes of blood-red and cylinders fighting for hours and moving out beyond the sun and returning. They aren't sun spots. Whatever they are, the people have only a limited number of explanations for them. Many interpret this display in the sky as signs from God to repent their evil ways. Others ignore these signs. This isn't the first modern UFO sighting but it's pretty close. It does come with art, though, and it's reasonably spectacular. Something happened that day.  
St. Basil's Cathedral Spires Are Up... St. Paul's Cathedral Spire Burns Down
Ivan the terrible commissioned a new and magnificent cathedral to be built to commemorate his victory over Mongols of Kazan. The result is St. Basil's Cathedral. It's distinctive bulbous spires remain iconic representatives of Moscow but right now the spires look more like helmets. These will be replaced by the familiar bulbous spires before the century is out. This cathedral will also remain the tallest building in Moscow for several decades. In this same year, the spire of the famous Saint Paul's Cathedral is hit by lightening, catches fire and collapses. Repairs restore most of the church but the spire will not be rebuilt. The cathedral will be destroyed during the Great Fire of London in 1666. St. Paul's will be rebuilt and remain standing into the modern day even through the Blitz in 1940 when Nazi Germany specifically tried to destroy St. Paul's.     
The 4th Battle to Bring Peace to the 17 Tribes... Yada, Yada, Yada
In one of the bloodiest battles in Japanese history, Uesugi Kenshin (oo-eh-soo-geh ken-shin) often called the Dragon, squares off with Takeda Shingen (tah-kay-dah shin-gen) often called the Tiger. The Tiger's forces are substantially greater than the Dragon's and he is primarily a military leader. The Dragon has a great reputation in battle but his primary skills are in administration. His province is an economic powerhouse. This will be the fourth battle in this bloody war and the Dragon will use a new tactic of rotating his warriors from front to back as they grow tired in battle. This keeps the men in the front of the battle fresh. He also foils the Tiger's plans for an ambush. By tradition the Dragon and the Tiger come to grips: up close and personal. It is probably a myth but a statue of the two locked in battle remains on the spot to this day. This is a failure for the Dragon but he is able to retreat with his troops in good order.   
This Year on Wikipedia
Year 1561, Wikipedia.
- * The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
- Why UFOs: Operation Trojan Horse (BOOK), Manor Books. “A large number of 'plates,' 'blood-colored crosses,' and 'two great tubes' staged an aerial dogfight on that date, enthralling and frightening the whole population of Nuremberg. Five years later a similar group of objects is said to have appeared over Basel, Switzerland. Some of them turned red and faded away, just as modern UFOs have been reported to do. A sketch of this incident is also in Zurich's Wickiana collection.”
- 1561 celestial phenomenon over Nuremberg - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 20 April 2015. “Around dawn on April 14, 1561, residents of Nuremberg saw what they described as an aerial battle, followed by the appearance of a large black triangular object and then a large crash outside of the city. According to witnesses, there were hundreds of spheres, cylinders and other odd-shaped objects that moved erratically overhead.”
- Cathedral of the Protecting Veil of the Mother of God. Saint Basil (Official Site) (2011). Retrieved on 20 April 2015. “Every capital has a well-known landmark making it easily recognizable. In Moscow, the Cathedral of the Protecting Veil of the Mother of God, better known as the Cathedral of St. Vasily the Blessed (or St. Basil's Cathedral, as it is often called in English), standing in Red Square is such a landmark.”
- Old St Paul's Cathedral: Fire - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 20 April 2015. “On 4 June 1561 the spire caught fire and crashed through the nave roof. According to a newsheet published days after the fire, the cause was a lightning strike.”
- Saint Basil's Cathedral - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 20 April 2015. “It was built from 1555-61 on orders from Ivan the Terrible and commemorates the capture of Kazan and Astrakhan. A world famous landmark it was the city's tallest building until the completion of the Ivan the Great Bell Tower in 1600.”
- St. Basil's Cathedral History & Location -- Moscow,. FamousWonders.com (2015). Retrieved on 20 April 2015. “According to legend, the builder of this cathedral was blinded so that such a beautiful structure could never be built again. The cathedral is vividly colorful and contains redbrick towers that add to its beauty. The church's design consists of nine chapels, each mounted with its individual dome that marks the assault on the city of Kazan.”
- Cathedral History Timeline. St Paul's Cathedral (Official Site) (2015). Retrieved on 20 April 2015. “The spire of Old St Paul's, which had once made it the tallest building ever constructed in the world, collapsed after being struck by lightning. It was never rebuilt.”
- Connie Willis. Blackout. Spectra. 0345519833. ISBN 9780345519832. OCLC 567696267.
- Battles of Kawanakajima - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 20 April 2015. “The five major battles took place in 1553, 1555, 1557, 1561 and 1564. The best known and most severe among them was fought on September 10, 1561.”
- Fourth Battle of Kawanakajima. Samurai Wiki (2013). Retrieved on 20 April 2015. “Shingen then decided to adopt a plan conceived by Yamamoto Kansuke whereby one part of the Takeda army would set up an ambush on Kawanakajima while the other part flushed Kenshin from Saijo in a night action.”
- The 4th Battle of Kawanakajima. twcenter.net (2015). Retrieved on 20 April 2015. “Here's the problem. Ever climbed mountains? It's pretty hard to go down even with good visibility and a decent trail. If the fog was really as heavy as the sources claim, how did Kenshin managed to march his men in what is basically zero-vision? Down a hill? Without the Takeda noticing at all?”
- Pokémon Conquest - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 20 April 2015. “A legend is foretold that the one who unifies all the 17 kingdoms of the Ransei Region, will have a chance to encounter the Legendary Pokémon who created the Ransei Region.”