Scientists Discover Sex... Scientifically
The study of anatomy has always been hobbled by religious prohibitions against damaging the corpse which was once a vessel for the soul. As the Renaissance has progressed, dissection of corpses for study and practice for surgery has become more common, especially in Italy. Realdo Columbo and Gabriele Falloppio have written papers regarding various aspects of a women's reproductive system. The Fallopian tubes are named after Gabriele Falloppio who describes them but does not realize what function they serve. He also coins the word "vagina" and has already developed the first condom made out of linen and tied on with a pink ribbon. The condom is designed to prevent syphilis, and the color of the ribbon is chosen to appeal to a woman's color sense. Columbo and Falloppio will also discover the clitoris.    
Teresa of Ávila Meets the Choir Invisible and Lives
Sister Teresa of Avila has an invisible vision of Jesus and later she will have a vision of an angel which will stab her with a spear. It is quite a painful experience. These visions will continue for two years and although her friends are worried for her, her father-confessor assures her that she is on the right track. She and her protégé John of the Cross, are writing down their mystical experiences which will become the basis for modern Christian mysticism. In her writings, she focuses on her personal insights and experiences in mysticism which makes her writings more approachable.   
- For prayer is nothing else than being on terms of friendship with God. -- Saint Teresa. 
A Hurricane Hits the Pensacola Colony *
King Philip the 2nd of Spain has decided to expand the colonization of what will one day become the southern states of the United States. He has appointed a man named DeLuna to lead the expedition to colonize what will be Pensacola, Florida. However, due to problems with Indians in previous colonization attempts DeLuna leaves his ships anchored off shore and does some exploring first. That exploring will last two months. Remember when the Spaniards were hit by a storm and washed up on Galveston shore? This time a massive hurricane hits Deluna's ships while they are fully loaded with equipment, supplies and colonists. Most of them go right to the bottom. The survivors will carry on, but the handwriting is on the wall. This colony will fail.   
This Year on Wikipedia
Year 1559, Wikipedia.
- * The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
- Realdo Colombo - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 16 April 2015. “Colombo published his only work, De Re Anatomica, in 1559 shortly before his death. Many of the contributions made in De Re Anatomica overlapped the discoveries of Gabriel Falloppio, most notably their claims of having discovered the clitoris.”
- Gabriele Falloppio - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 16 April 2015. “He studied the reproductive organs in both sexes, and described the Fallopian tube, which leads from the ovary to the uterus and now bears his name.”
- Gabriele Falloppio. Who Named It - dictionary of medical eponyms (2015). Retrieved on 16 April 2015. “According to condom lore, the term condom goes back tot the second half of the seventeenth century, when England's King Charles II, who had countless mistresses and even more 'bastards', but no legitimate offspring, wanted something to protect him from syphilis. His physician, the Earl of Condom, came up with an oiled sheath made from sheep intestine. No one is really sure if he knew about Fallopius' contraption but soon all the noblemen were using them. It is said that throughout the doctor's life, he discouraged the use of his name to describe the invention.”
- Gabriele Falloppio. daphne.palomar.edu (2005). Retrieved on 16 April 2015. “He was the first to accurately describe the tubes leading from the ovary to the uterus (the 'trumpets of the uterus' as he called them). They were subsequently named the 'Fallopian tubes' in his honor, although he failed to grasp their function. He asserted the existence of the hymen in virgins, was first to describe the clitoris, coined the word vagina, and disproved the popular notion that the penis entered the uterus during intercourse.”
- Teresa of Ávila - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 16 April 2015. “On St. Peter's Day in 1559, Teresa became firmly convinced that Jesus Christ presented himself to her in bodily form, though invisible. These visions lasted almost uninterrupted for more than two years.”
- (1910) St. Teresa of Jesus (Teresa of Avila), The Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved on 8 February 2015. “St. Teresa's position among writers on mystical theology is unique. In all her writings on this subject she deals with her personal experiences, which a deep insight and analytical gifts enabled her to explain clearly.”
- Teresa of Ávila - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 8 February 2015. “Teresa of Ávila, also called Saint Teresa of Jesus, baptized as Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada (28 March 1515 -- 4 October 1582), was a prominent Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic saint, Carmelite nun, an author of the Counter Reformation and theologian of contemplative life through mental prayer. She was a reformer of the Carmelite Order and is considered to be a founder of the Discalced Carmelites along with John of the Cross.”
- Saint Teresa of Avila Quotes. The Quotations Page (2015). Retrieved on 16 April 2015. “For prayer is nothing else than being on terms of friendship with God.”
- Gita Mehta. Karma Cola: Marketing the Mystic East. Penguin India. ISBN 9780140236835.
- Teresa of Avila (1904). The Life of St. Teresa of Jesus, of The Order of Our Lady of Carmel. Benziger Brothers. Retrieved on 16 April 2015. “But it is to be observed, that if we see visions and hear words it never is as at the time when the soul is in union in the very rapture itself,--so it seems to me. At that moment, as I have shown,--I think it was when I was speaking of the second water,  --all the faculties of the soul are suspended; and, as I think, neither vision, nor understanding, nor hearing, is possible at that time.”
- Spain Settles South Carolina. dalecozort.com (2013). Retrieved on 15 April 2015. “In our time-line, the Spanish made a major effort to settle the southeastern US in 1559. The DeLuna expedition landed over a thousand Spaniards and Mexican Indians along the Gulf Coast. The DeLuna colony failed quickly and totally. Like the Ayallon colony, it lost most of its initial supplies in a storm before they could be put ashore. Also, DeLuna initially landed in an area near where the DeSoto expedition fought the Mobile Indians and nearly destroyed them. Even twenty years later the area was essentially deserted. The colony quickly found itself starving. The leaders quarreled and eventually survivors withdrew.”
- The Conquistadors. Florida History Internet Center (2015). Retrieved on 15 April 2015. “With an enormous force of thirteen ships and 1500 soldiers, de Luna landed at Pensacola Bay. Velasco's choice of leader proved unworthy. Leaving the ships in the Bay for two months while he explored the region. He sent his aide Villafane to the Atlantic Coast to erect a colony rather than consolidating his efforts. A storm destroyed five of his ships.”
- Spanish Colonies: Other American Colonies: Information from Answers.com. answers.com (2015). Retrieved on 15 April 2015. “Supply problems led to a mutiny, and Philip II (ruled 1556-1598) ordered most of the men removed to the Point of Santa Elena (Tybee Island, Ga.); this was in response to what he believed was a French plan to occupy a port on the Atlantic coast and thereby attack the vital Bahama Channel sailing route.”