1553

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Queen for a Day... Actually 9 Days

Young King Edward the 6th is dying. It's probably tuberculosis though many will suspect the King's regent, Duke John Dudley, poisoned him. John is not well-loved and he knows it. If the King's half-sister, Mary, takes the throne, he's history, so to speak. Mary is also Catholic so it is feared that she will overturn the religious reforms to date. John arranges for Lady Jane Grey to marry his own son and then talks King Edward and the royal council into naming Lady Jane as the King's successor. When the King passes away later this year, Lady Jane will take the throne... for nine days. There is an uproar. The Mayor of London refuses to recognize the new Queen and Mary organizes a small army to take her rightful place on the throne. Shortly thereafter, Queen Jane abdicates, and the new Queen Mary the 1st will have her beheaded next year. Duke John is going by-bye right now. [1] [2] [3]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
In the past we have seen the most improbable lines of succession work if the king or queen is strong enough politically or in personality. That was not happening with Lady Jane. She was a last minute substitution and an obvious puppet of Duke John Dudley. The Duke's fears were realized. Not only did Queen Mary the 1st have the Duke's head removed (and no love lost there) but she exacted retribution on the Protestants. She earned the nickname, "Bloody Mary" due to the hundreds of Protestants she had executed. The cocktail of the same name was NOT named after her. If it was named after anyone (and there is very little supporting data) it was named after the movie star, Mary Pickford, in the 1920s or 1930s. [4] [5]

All the Gold That You Can Drink *

Governor of Chile, Pedro de Valdivia (val-deh-VEE-ah) has been conquering what is the northern part of Chile and Argentina all the way to the Bío-Bío River. Then he hit a brick wall called the Mapuche (mah-POO-cheh) Indians. Years ago the Spaniards had come south and mowed them down without much of a problem, but they have learned their lesson. The Governor's young page named Lautaro is a Mapuche Indian who learned Spanish and studied the tactics of the Spaniards. A couple of years ago, he slipped away to organize his fellow Indians to oppose the Spaniards. As the Governor makes his way to the new town of Tucapel he notices that his progress is too easy. He sends out scouts who do not return and when he reaches Tucapel he finds a smoking ruin. His troops make a stand as wave after wave of Indians attack. Exactly how Governor Pedro de Valdivia dies is in dispute, but one account suggests that during the victory party, the Mapuche offered him all the gold that he could drink, and poured a bucket of molten gold down his throat. The Mapuche will not be reigned in until the 1800s and will remain an occasional disruptive force into the modern day. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Although there was not a lot of gold, the agricultural potential in Chile and Argentina was remarkable, but it would have taken a lot of careful planning and work to exploit them. The Conquistadors were not farmers nor ranchers. They were soldiers and generally low-level aristocrats called hidalgos (hih-DAHL-goze). These landless nobles were forever trying to improve their position, as quickly as possible. No one likes to be conquered but the Spaniards could have shown the Indians how to plant crops that were salable in Europe, taken a percentage off the top and be done with it. But the only way the Spaniards had known was to demand things and the serfs would produce what was needed. As oppressive as that system sounds, it had worked for them for hundreds of years. Unfortunately, the Indians didn't know that system so they had to be taught. It was a slow and angry process that was not entirely successful. [11]

This Year on Wikipedia

Year 1553, Wikipedia.

See Also

References

* The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
  1. Lady Jane Grey - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 24 March 2015. “Lady Jane Grey (1536/1537 -- 12 February 1554), also known as Lady Jane Dudley or The Nine Day Queen, was an English noblewoman and de facto monarch of England from 10 July until 19 July 1553.”
  2. Biography and Fast Facts About Lady Jane Grey. about.com (2015). Retrieved on 8 April 2015. “He arranged with Suffolk for Suffolk's daughter, Lady Jane, to marry Guildford Dudley, son of Northumberland. They were married in May, 1553. Northumberland then convinced Edward to make Jane and any male heirs she might have the successors to Edward's crown.”
  3. Edward VI of England - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 8 April 2015. “The surgeon who opened Edward's chest after his death found that 'the disease whereof his majesty died was the disease of the lungs'.[178] The Venetian ambassador reported that Edward had died of consumption—in other words, tuberculosis—a diagnosis accepted by many historians.”
  4. Bloody Mary (cocktail) - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 8 April 2015. “The name 'Bloody Mary' is associated with a number of historical figures — particularly Queen Mary I of England, who was nicknamed as such in Foxe's Book of Martyrs for attempting to re-establish the Catholic Church in England — and fictional women from folklore. Some drink aficionados believe the inspiration for the name was Hollywood star Mary Pickford.”
  5. Grey Jane. TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY (2013). Retrieved on 8 April 2015. “Edward VI died on the 6th July 1553, and it was announced to Lady Jane that she was queen. She was then but sixteen years of age. The news came upon her as a most unwelcome surprise, and for some time she resisted all persuasions to accept the fatal dignity; but at length she yielded to the entreaties of her father, her father-in-law and her husband.”
  6. Battle of Tucapel - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 8 April 2015. “Alonso de Góngora Marmolejo writes Valdivia offered as a ransom for his life that he would evacuate the Spanish settlements in their lands and give them large herds of animals, but this was rejected and the Mapuche cut off his forearms, roasted and ate them in front of him before killing him and the priest. Pedro Mariño de Lobera also wrote that Valdivia offered to evacuate the lands of the Mapuche but says he was shortly after killed by a vengeful warrior named Pilmaiquen with a large club, saying Valdivia could not be trusted to keep his word once freed. Lobera also says that a common story in Chile at the time was that that Valdivia was killed by giving him the gold that the Spaniards so desired; however, the gold was molten and was poured down Valdivia's throat.”
  7. Crónica del Reino de Chile. CervantesVirtual.com (2015). Retrieved on 8 April 2015. “Y es que estando los indios con extraordinario regocijo viendo en sus manos al gran capitán de los españoles, hicieron con él muchas fiestas por burla y escarnio, y por remate trajeron una olla de oro ardiendo y se la presentaron, diciéndole: pues tan amigo eres de oro, hártate agora dél, y para que lo tengas más guardado, abre la boca y bebe aqueste que viene fundido, y diciendo esto lo hicieron como lo dijeron, dándoselo a beber por fuerza, teniendo por fin de su muerte lo que tuvo por fin de su entrada en Chile. (Google Translate: And is that Indians were with extraordinary joy seeing in their hands the great master of the Spaniards they made with him many festivals jokes and jibes, and finish they brought a pot of gold ablaze and presented it, saying because so fond are you gold, hártate dél agora, and they have more saved, open your mouth and drink aqueste next molten, saying that they did as they said, handing it to drink hard, finally taking his death so he had by to its entry into Chile.)”
  8. Pedro de Valdivia - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 9 April 2015. “He extended Spanish rule south to the Bío-Bío River in 1546, fought again in Peru (1546 – 48), and returned to Chile as governor in 1549. He began to conquer Chile south of the Bío-Bío and founded Concepción in 1550. He was captured and killed in a campaign against the Araucanian Indians. The city of Valdivia in Chile is named after him.”
  9. The Arauco War. SpanishWars.net (2013). Retrieved on 9 April 2015. “A young man, Lautaro, had served as a page boy for the Europeans. He learned Spanish and gained much knowledge of the ways of the Spanish army. He escaped and his fellow Mapuches elected him as military leader. He knew that the Spanish were drawing south and he decided to prepare an ambush. He lied to the Spanish soldiers who were in Fort Purén and who according to Valdivia's orders were to meet the company in Fort Tucapel.”
  10. Lautaro - biography - Mapuche leader. Encyclopedia Britannica (2015). Retrieved on 9 April 2015. “Lautaro was probably born in northern Chile; according to tradition, during his boyhood he was captured by the Spanish and forced to serve as a groom in the stables of the conquistador Pedro de Valdivia. Escaping southward into Araucanian Indian country soon after Valdivia began conquering it in 1550, Lautaro joined the Araucanians, unified their tribal organization, and with their chief, Caupolicán, led them in battle, further improving on the shrewd tactics and stratagems by which they had often defeated the Spaniards.”
  11. Hidalgo (nobility) - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 9 April 2015. “In popular usage, the term hidalgo identifies a nobleman without a hereditary title. In practice, hidalgos were exempted from paying taxes, yet owned little real property.”

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