1552

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The Society of Jesus Is Made Official

Pope Julius the 3rd formally recognizes the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) and budgets an annual stipend for them. The term "Jesuit" is a mild insult at this time. It means someone who uses the name "Jesus" a little too much for comfortable conversation. The Jesuits will become part of the counter-Reformation. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Insults often change over time to become the preferred label for certain people. For example, Orthodox Jews were not called Orthodox until the 1850s when Reform Jews wished to needle anyone who did not embrace change in Jewish observance. So-called Orthodox Jews embraced the insult but in a real sense, Orthodox Judaism does not exist. It is simply observant Judaism, but don't tell anyone I said so. OK? Another group that has embraced a negative label is homosexual men. My wife loved watching the TV show "Queer Eye for the Straight Guy" where 5 self-identifying homosexual men gave a fashion makeover to heterosexual men. [8] [9]

FYI, I was once on the board of directors of a Jewish organization that worked with Fordham University... a Jesuit institution.

Problems in Yemen, the Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz *

With the opening of trade with India, Portuguese merchants are bringing spices around the Cape of Good Hope, but part of merchant trading at this time is not only to provide goods and services to your customers but prevent your competition from doing the same... good and hard. The Ottoman Turks are the competition. They have taken Yemen along the Red Sea so as to control the shipping port of Mocha and its coffee bean exports but the Portuguese have taken the Island of Hormuz at the top of the hairpin turn that is the Strait of Hormuz. That position effectively blocks all commerce within the Persian Gulf which includes modern day eastern Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates. The Ottoman Navy has been devastating in the Mediterranean Sea but they can't bring enough ships around Africa to unseat the Portuguese from their perch. [10] [11]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
There was no Suez Canal in 1552 but if it did exist, you can bet that the Portuguese would have been blocking traffic through it from their competitors. The Suez Canal links the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea. It is extremely valuable for trade since one need not make the long trip around Africa. In that respect it is like the Panama Canal. And like the Panama Canal, it is a military logistics choke point. At the time of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), the Russians wanted to send ships from the Baltic Sea to reinforce their navy which had taken a beating against the Japanese but the British blocked the Russian transit. The Suez Crisis in 1956 closed the Suez Canal and President Dwight D. Eisenhower focused on the Suez rather than support Hungry which was being invaded by the Soviets. His administration had been encouraging Hungry to break away and they thought the USA would come to save them, just as the Iraqi revolutionaries believed that the US would join them in their overthrow of Saddam Hussein after Gulf War I. Do I have to say Ukraine? I suppose I do. [12] [13] [14]

This Year on Wikipedia

Year 1552, Wikipedia.

See Also

References

* The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
  1. The Jesuits. History Wars Weapons (December 25, 2008). Retrieved on 2 April 2015. “At the beginning the number of its members was limited to sixty. This limitation was removed through the bull &lquot;Injunctum nobis&rquot; of March 14, 1543, and Ignatius of Loyola was chosen as the first superior-general, sending his companions as missionaries around Europe to create schools, colleges, and seminaries.”
  2. (1910) Julius III, The Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2 April 2015. “He was a liberal supporter of the rising Jesuit Order, and at the instance of St. Ignatius issued the Bull of foundation for the Collegium Germanicum on 31 August, 1552, and granted it an annual subsidy.” 
  3. Words from History (PDF), Books on Words, Houghton Mifflin. “In 1521, his leg was badly wounded while he was defending the city of Pamplona, in north central Spain, against the besieging French. In the enforced inactivity that followed, Loyola's thoughts turned from warfare to religion and eventually combined the two. In 1534, he organized a group which he visualized as soldiers in the cause of Jesus. He obtained the approval of Pope Paul III in 1540, and thus was founded the Society of Jesus.” 
  4. Ignatius of Loyola - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 10 March 2015. “'On the morning of the 15th of August, 1534, in the chapel of church of Saint Peter, at Montmartre, Loyola and his six companions, of whom only one was a priest, met and took upon themselves the solemn vows of their lifelong work.' Ignatius of Loyola was the main creator and initial Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious organization of the Catholic Church whose members, known as Jesuits, served the Pope as missionaries.”
  5. About Us - The Jesuits. Jesuits.org (Official Site, USA) (2015). Retrieved on 10 March 2015. “As members of a religious order, Jesuits take three vows — of poverty, chastity and obedience — and a fourth vow of obedience specifically in regard to worldwide mission. In other words, Jesuits must be ready to accept whatever mission the Pope requires, a vow that is reflective of our broader dedication to the universal Church, and to the greater good of all people from all faiths and cultures.”
  6. The Jews & the Jesuits. OzTorah (2015). Retrieved on 12 March 2015. “There was probably a Jewish connection with the formation of the Society of Jesus. Diego (Jaime) Laynez, Loyolo's successor was from a family that was probably originally Jewish, as was Juan Alonso de Polanco, Loyola's secretary. He was prepared to allow &lquot;new Christians&rquot; into the order and in 1552 admitted Giovann Baptista Eliano, a grandson of the Hebraist, Elijah Levita. By the end of the 16th century the order ruled against accepting &lquot;new Christians&rquot; and a later ruling in 1608 required at least five generations of Christian identity, which restriction was removed in 1946.”
  7. (2006) The Jesuits II: Cultures, Sciences, and the Arts, 1540-1773. University of Toronto Press. Retrieved on 2 April 2015. “Formula of the Institute (1550) Exposcit debitum 
  8. Orthodox. Online Etymology Dictionary (2015). Retrieved on 2 April 2015. “in reference to a branch of Judaism, first recorded 1853”
  9. Queer Eye - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 2 April 2015. “The show is premised on and plays with the stereotypes that gay men are superior in matters of fashion, style, personal grooming, interior design and culture. In each episode, the team of five gay men known collectively as the 'Fab Five' perform a makeover (in the parlance of the show, a 'make-better') on a person, usually a straight man, revamping his wardrobe, redecorating his home and offering advice on grooming, lifestyle and food.”
  10. (2010) Western Islam 11th-18th Centuries (BOOK), Maribel Fierro (editor), New Cambridge History of Islam, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 342-343. ISBN 9780521839570. “In the Gulf, however, the Portuguese successfully prevented the operation of Ottoman shipping beyond the Straits of Hormuz.” 
  11. Mocha, Yemen - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 7 April 2015. “Mocha is famous for being the major marketplace for coffee from the 15th century until the early 18th century. Even after other sources of coffee were found, Mocha beans (also called Sanani or Mocha Sanani beans, meaning from Sana'a) continued to be prized for their distinctive flavor—and remain so even today.”
  12. Suez Crisis - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 7 April 2015. “The Suez Crisis, also named the Tripartite Aggression,[16] was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by Britain and France. The aims were to regain Western control of the Suez Canal and to remove Egyptian president Nasser from power.”
  13. Russo-Japanese War - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 7 April 2015. “The Russo-Japanese War (8 February 1904 – 5 September 1905) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.”
  14. Hungarian Revolution of 1956 - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 7 April 2015. “The United States hoped to encourage East European countries to break away from the bloc through their own efforts but wanted to avoid a US-Soviet military confrontation, as escalation might lead to nuclear war. For these reasons, US policy makers had to consider other means of diminishing Soviet influence in Eastern Europe, short of a rollback policy. This led to the development of containment policies such as economic and psychological warfare, covert operations, and, later, negotiation with the Soviet Union regarding the status of the Eastern states.”

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