1551

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When the Family is Punished for Your Treason

A number of changes were made to the penalties for treason in England, much of it softening what the previous Tudor kings had instituted. Calling the King a "usurper" or "heretic" is considered treason only if it is in writing. Probably the most dire of penalties is the revocation of the wife's dower rights... essentially revoking the death benefits for her support. Dower benefits usually consisted of land and a house, but often the family would pay her off so that the family estate would not be split up. This threatening penalty to the family will not be repealed until 1925. Other parts of the Treason Act will not be repealed until 1948. [1]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
There are two examples that come to mind when the family pays the penalty for the acts of the guilty... the ancient Code of Hammurabi required that if a man built a house that killed the owner, the builder was killed in compensation but if the owner's son was killed then "the builder's son shall be put to death." What the son had to do with anything is a mystery. A modern example took place in Israel during the Infitada from 2001-2005. Whenever a suicide bomber blew people up, the Israeli government would identify the family of the bomber and bulldoze their home. The practice was restarted in 2014 after several terrorist attacks, including the gunning down of four rabbis in Jerusalem in November of 2014 by a Palestinian. Is this bulldozing practice effective? In the short-term, like about a month after, terrorist attacks are reduced. Beyond that, not so much. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

FYI, my rabbi lives in Jerusalem.

A Narrative of the Incas

Employed as an interpreter, Juan Diez has learned a lot about the Inca people and apparently he has been taking notes. This year he publishes his "Narrative of the Incas". Juan's sources for this history are biased (like the Inca Emperor's wife) so read it with a grain of salt. Not all of it will survive into the modern day, but it will remain one of the primary sources of history on the Incas because the Incas didn't write much down. [7] [8]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Narratives from this time are few and biased. Without additional narratives from the Indians to balance against the Spaniards we can only surmise what the truth is. That doesn't make the Spaniards outright liars, but they tend to jolly along their superiors... downplaying their failures and boosting their accomplishments. You can imagine how nervous those superiors in Europe were because they would have few ways to verify if anything was going wrong. Negativity in a report would be magnified by their fears. [9]

The 5th Outbreak of Sweating Disease and the 'No Name' Virus *

The English Sweating Disease usually kills in a day. It is a lung disease that begins with flu-like symptoms and moves quickly to extreme sweating and coughing. If you can survive for 24 hours you are probably going to make it. Medical historians believe it was a more virulent form of the modern Hanta virus so that means it is distantly related to the Ebola virus. This year John Caius of Shrewsbury categorizes the symptoms of the disease. His work allows the modern physician to understand what might have been going on during this epidemic. [10] [11] [12]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
The Hanta virus is rare in the United States. A recent memorable outbreak was at Yosemite National Park in 2012. People stayed in tent cabins that were infested with deer mice. Ten occupants contracted the disease. Three died. The virus is passed through rodent droppings or urine getting into the food or into the bedding. The virus was isolated in 1993 in the Four Corners Region in New Mexico so it was originally called the Four Corners virus. But after protests from the people living in the Four Corners area, the name was changed to Sin Nombre (seen NOHM-bray) virus... which is Spanish for the "No Name" virus. The lesson to learn is: Do not assume that your national park, rental RV or hotel is doing everything it can to keep you safe. Trust but verify. [13] [14] [15]

This Year on Wikipedia

Year 1551, Wikipedia.

See Also

References

* The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
  1. Treason Act 1551 - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  2. Code of Hammurabi. CommonLaw.com (2015). Retrieved on 6 April 2015. “229. If a builder has built a house for a man, and has not made his work sound, and the house he built has fallen, and caused the death of its owner, that builder shall be put to death. 230. If it is the owner's son that is killed, the builder's son shall be put to death.”
  3. Israel to renew demolition of terrorists' homes. Jerusalem Post (June 23, 2014). Retrieved on 6 April 2015. “According to B'Tselem, Israel demolished some 666 houses as punishment for terrorist attacks during the years of the second intifada, from 2001 until the practice was discontinued in February 2005.”
  4. High Court approves demolition of home of Passover eve terrorist. Jerusalem Post (July 01, 2014). Retrieved on 6 April 2015. “The court said that the specific plan for the demolition was proportionate and reasonable since the state had committed to demolish only the west wing of the structure, where Awad's immediate family lives, and not the east wing or underground storage areas connected to Awad's extended family.”
  5. Benmelech, Efraim; Berrebi, Claude; Klor, Esteban F. (Oct. 2010). "Counter-suicide-terrorism: Evidence from House Demolitions - RAND". National Bureau of Economic Research Working Papers: 1-34. http://www.nber.org/papers/w16493. Retrieved 6 April 2015. "we show that punitive house demolitions (those targeting Palestinian suicide terrorists and terror operatives) cause an immediate, significant decrease in the number of suicide attacks.". 
  6. Four killed, others hurt in terror attack at Jerusalem synagogue. Jerusalem Post (November 18, 2014). Retrieved on 6 April 2015. “Four prominent rabbis, including three US citizens and one British citizen, were brutally murdered in a terrorist attack at a western Jerusalem synagogue Tuesday morning that left seven other men seriously wounded.”
  7. Suma y narracion de los Incas, que los indios llamaron Capaccuna, que fueron. Gutenberg.org (2015). Retrieved on 6 April 2015.
  8. (1907) Juan de Betanzos, The Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 6 April 2015. “In 1551 he finished his book entitled 'Suma y Narración de los Incas etc.' (dedicating it to the viceroy Antonio de Mendoza), one of the most important sources for ancient Peruvian history. Unfortunately only a part of this work is still known to exist. It embodies the earliest accounts of Indian traditions from Bolivia and extreme southern Peru, and as they were gathered by Betanzos within less than fifteen years after the landing of Pizarro, they can hardly be much tainted by contact with Europeans. Of the life of Betanzos, after 1551, practically nothing is known.” 
  9. jolly - definition of jolly by. The Free Dictionary (2015). Retrieved on 6 April 2015. “to try to keep (a person) in good humor, esp. to gain a desired end (usu. fol. by along).”
  10. Sweating sickness - Wikipedia (2014). Retrieved on 12 December 2014.
  11. The Sweating Sickness Returns. DiscoverMagazine.com (June 1, 1997). Retrieved on 14 December 2014. “Now physicians Vanya Gant and Guy Thwaites, both of St. Thomas' Hospital in London, think they may have identified the killer. Sudor Anglicus, they say, may have been an early version of a disease that has made headlines in recent years: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, which erupted in the Four Corners region of the American Southwest in the summer of 1993.”
  12. Sweating-Sickness 'English Sweat' - England Under the Tudors. Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Edition. Volume 26 (2014). Retrieved on 14 December 2014. “The malady was remarkably rapid in its course, being sometimes fatal even in two or three hours, and some patients died in less than that time. More commonly it was protracted to a period of twelve to twenty-four hours, beyond which it rarely lasted. Those who survived for twenty-four hours were considered safe.”
  13. What Caused the Yosemite Hantavirus Outbreak?. Scientific American (September 7, 2012). Retrieved on 6 April 2015. “Most victims likely picked up the infection while staying in insulated tent cabins that were infested with mice, which carry the disease. The U.S. National Park Service estimates that as many as 10,000 people might be at risk of having been exposed to the disease since early June. And it has urged anyone who stayed in the 'Signature Tent Cabins' in Yosemite's Curry Village to be vigilant about looking for flulike symptoms, which can signal the onset of the illness. The virus can take as long as six weeks to incubate.”
  14. Sin Nombre virus - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 6 April 2015. “It was first isolated in 1993 from rodents collected near the home of one of the initial patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the Four Corners region of the western United States.”
  15. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS). Center for Disease Control (2015). Retrieved on 6 April 2015. “To date, no cases of HPS have been reported in the United States in which the virus was transmitted from one person to another.”

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