Third Act Problems and What Constitutes an Unalienable Right *
In previous Acts of the English Parliament, King Henry the 8th's female children had been removed from the line of succession and rendered as bastards. Now, at the direction of the King, his Parliament has restored Mary and Elizabeth as legitimate heirs to the throne behind his son, Edward. Another Act makes it a treasonable offense to change this line of succession again. No doubt this was done to protect Edward, but when Edward becomes King he will attempt to cut out his half-sisters by naming his successor as Lady Jane Grey but Mary won't let that stand. Lady Jane will rule for 9 days before Mary will have her removed and beheaded.   
The Beginning of the Dutch Republic and a Foreign-born Leadership
The Duchy of Geldern has been the center of a series of wars that have finally come to an end. The region is now under the control of Carlos the 1st of Spain (otherwise known as the Holy Roman Emperor). This event brings the 17 provinces of the original Dutch Republic under a single direct ruler. There are a few technical issues to be resolved and a couple of rebellions but the basic elements the Dutch Republic are now in place. From here the Dutch Empire will grow and extend around the world.  
Martin Luther Turns Against the Jews
Martin Luther publishes a pamphlet entitled "On the Jews and Their Lies." It differs greatly from his earlier works regarding the Jews when he chided his fellow Christians for being so cruel to the Jews. In 1523 he wrote: "If I had been a Jew and had seen such dolts and blockheads govern and teach the Christian faith, I would sooner have become a hog than a Christian. They have dealt with the Jews as if they were dogs rather than human beings; they have done little else than deride them and seize their property." 
But twenty years later, his attitude towards the Jews has taken a dark turn...
- "What shall we Christians do with this rejected and condemned people, the Jews? ..."
- "First, to set fire to their synagogues or schools and to bury and cover with dirt whatever will not burn..."
- "Second, I advise that their houses also be razed and destroyed..." 
This Year on Wikipedia
Year 1543, Wikipedia.
- * The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
- Third Succession Act - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 24 March 2015. “The Third Succession Act of Henry VIII's reign was passed by the Parliament of England in July 1543, and returned both Mary and Elizabeth to the line of the succession behind their half-brother Edward.”
- Treason Act 1543 - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
- Lady Jane Grey - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 25 March 2015. “Lady Jane Grey (1536/1537--12 February 1554), also known as Lady Jane Dudley or The Nine Day Queen, was an English noblewoman and de facto monarch of England from 10 July until 19 July 1553.”
- Unalienable / Inalienable. USHistory.org (2014). Retrieved on 25 March 2015. “The final version of the Declaration uses the word 'unalienable.' Some earlier drafts used the word 'inalienable,' which is the term our modern dictionaries prefer. The two words mean precisely the same thing.”
- Dutch Empire - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 27 February 2015. “The territories that would later form the Dutch Republic were originally part of a loose federation known as the Seventeen Provinces, which Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and (as 'Carlos I') King of Spain, had inherited and brought under his direct rule in 1543.”
- Guelderian Wars - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 25 March 2015. “The wars lasted from 1502 till 1543 and ended with a Burgundian victory. With this outcome, all of the Low Countries were now under the control of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.”
- Philip I of Castile - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 25 March 2015. “Philip I (22 July 1478 -- 25 September 1506) known as Philip the Handsome or the Fair, was the first member of the house of Habsburg to be King of Castile. The son of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, at age 3 Philip inherited the greater part of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands (as Philip IV) from his mother, Mary, and at 27 briefly succeeded to the Crown of Castile as the husband of Queen Joanna, who was also heiress-presumptive to the Crown of Aragon.”
- On the Jews and Their Lies - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 26 March 2015. “Luther's attitude toward the Jews took different forms over his life. In his earlier period, until 1537 or not much earlier, he wanted to convert Jews to Christianity. In his later period when he wrote this treatise, he denounced them and urged their persecution.”
- On the Jews and Their Lies (1543). jdstone.org (1543). Retrieved on 26 March 2015. “What shall we Christians do with this rejected and condemned people, the Jews?”
- Eric Metaxas. Bonhoeffer. Thomas Nelson.