1536

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The Queen is Dead; Long Live the Queen; The Queen is Dead... Again

Catherine, the Queen of England, has died. She was a faithful Catholic so when the Pope had refused King Henry the 8th's request to annul the marriage, she naturally insisted that she was still Queen. Catherine had given the King a daughter, Mary, but the King wanted a male heir. King Henry had the Church of England annul the marriage and married Anne Boleyn who quickly gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth. Now Anne must produce a male heir, but on the day of Queen Catherine's funeral, Queen Anne miscarries. It was a boy, but that doesn't matter now. It was her fourth pregnancy and her last chance. The King has their marriage secretly declared invalid. She is arrested and accused of crimes of incest, adultery and conspiracy to murder the King. Queen Anne is found guilty of treason along with her brother and the various men who were accused of adultery with her. They will lose their heads before the year is out. [1] [2] [3]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
This was a palace coup. Aside from King Henry's suspicions about Anne Boleyn, it is more likely that his advisor, Thomas Cromwell, was driving the downfall of Anne. Along the way he took out several inconvenient people except Anne's father who seemed to be going along with this charade. Anne, herself, was not trained to be a queen. She was trained to be a mistress like her sister, Mary Boleyn. So when Anne became Queen, King Henry took on mistresses and expected Anne to shut up about it. She was very unhappy about this development and whenever she had a complaint everyone heard it. This tendency to run off at the mouth is where the accusation of conspiracy to murder the King came from. And regarding their invalid marriage, several years before their marriage, the King had been boffing Anne's sister, Mary! This created a relationship in the eyes of the Church that had to be accounted for. This normally wasn't a big problem, but it served the King's purposes that it should be a big problem when he needed to dump Anne.[4] [5] [6]

The 2nd Act of Henry the 8th and the Moral Hazard of Helping the Poor

It's a big year for King Henry the 8th. After putting his wife to death for treason, how does he fill the time? The Second Succession Act took Queen Anne's daughter, Elizabeth out of the line of succession, and removed Mary the daughter of Queen Catherine as well. This Act also makes it an act of treason to repeal the Act itself. He then disbands all monasteries, convents, friaries and sells their assets, making some provision for those displaced. He also takes all their money. Since these monasteries are the primary means of helping the poor, the King will begin taxing workers to help the able-bodied workers who are out of work. (Similar to unemployment insurance.) Anything else? Yes. He makes illegal any and all communication or even praise of the Pope. And last but not least, the King will rebuild the ship the Mary Rose which will sink in 1545... something about failing to close the gun ports as they came about. The Mary Rose won't be found again until 1971. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
King Henry the 8th made a distinction between the helpless poor (that is... those too ill to work) and able-bodied migrant workers. Because farm work is seasonal, migrant workers had become a burden to local charities. Since the King has disbanded the monasteries (the primary help for the poor) government became the helping hand. It also implemented regulations that were less than charitable. In the modern day, FDR passed the Social Security Act which included Unemployment Insurance. Overburdened charities were grateful but it caused their demise as the government took their place. According to the Libertarian economist Charles Murray in his book "Losing Ground," unemployment benefits (as they were implemented originally) were the least harmful way to help the poor. But today the benefits have produced what is called "a moral hazard". When an insurance benefit is too high and the premium is too low, you will make happen the very thing you are insuring against. That is why a business with low-cost fire insurance suddenly bursts into flames and why unemployment insurance (as it is implemented today) causes unemployment. [14] [15] [16]

Norway is Nowhere *

The kingdom of Norway is dissolved. It has been annexed by Denmark. (Have a nice day.) Ever since Sweden won its independence from Denmark and broke the Kalmar Union, the region has been unstable. King Christian the 2nd of Denmark was deposed a few years ago by the Rigsraad (RIKS-rowed), the Council of the Realm which is majority Catholic, and replaced him with his uncle, Frederick, but Frederick has alarming sympathies with Martin Luther and his son, Christian the 3rd, is an even BIGGER Lutheran. A civil war has been raging and finally ends when King Christian marches into Copenhagen. The new King disestablishes all Catholic monasteries like King Henry the 8th of England has done, sells off their lands and takes their money. In the past Norway maintained it's borders and institutions as a separate kingdom under two crowns... the Crown of Norway and the Crown of Denmark worn by a single person. Now it will be a single kingdom under Christian the 3rd. [17] [18] [19] [20] [21]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
This melding of two kingdoms will never be complete. Passing a law does not erase a border. People still remember where the line was drawn. Norway will be dragged into several ill-considered wars and will not win its independence again until 1905, proving President Ronald Reagan's observation that...
"Freedom is never more than one generation away from extinction. We didn't pass it to our children in the bloodstream. It must be fought for, protected, and handed on for them to do the same, or one day we will spend our sunset years telling our children and our children's children what it was once like in the United States where men were free." [22]

This Year on Wikipedia

Year 1536, Wikipedia.

See Also

References

* The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
  1. "Chapter 12. A Poor Honest Life", Mary Boleyn: The Mistress of Kings. Ballantine Books. ISBN 9780345521354. “[...] the fortunes of the Boleyns suffered a fatal crash on May 2, 1536, when Queen Anne was arrested on charges of plotting the death of the King and committing adultery with five men, one of whom was her brother, Rochford, who was arrested that same day.” 
  2. Catherine of Aragon - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 15 March 2015. “The hour of my death now drawing on, the tender love I ouge [owe] thou forceth me, my case being such, to commend myselv to thou, and to put thou in remembrance with a few words of the healthe and safeguard of thine allm [soul] which thou ougte to preferce before all worldley matters, and before the care and pampering of thy body, for the which thoust have cast me into many calamities and thineselv into many troubles. For my part, I pardon thou everything, and I desire to devoutly pray God that He will pardon thou also. For the rest, I commend unto thou our doughtere Mary, beseeching thou to be a good father unto her, as I have heretofore desired. I entreat thou also, on behalve of my maides, to give them marriage portions, which is not much, they being but three. For all mine other servants I solicit the wages due them, and a year more, lest they be unprovided for. Lastly, I makest this vouge [vow], that mine eyes desire thou aboufe all things.”
  3. Anne Boleyn - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 15 March 2015. “On the day that Catherine of Aragon was buried at Peterborough Abbey, Anne miscarried a baby which, according to the imperial ambassador Chapuys, she had borne for about three and a half months, and which 'seemed to be a male child'. For Chapuys, this personal loss was the beginning of the end of the royal marriage.”
  4. definition of boffing. Urban Dictionary (2015). Retrieved on 16 March 2015. “having sex; British term that is making an American debut.”
  5. The Lady in the Tower: the Fall of Anne Boleyn. Ballantine Books. ISBN 9780345453211. “So she surely could not have predicted, when the King got up and walked out of the royal stand on that portentous May Day, it would be the last time she'd ever set eyes on him, and that she herself and those gallant contestants in the jousts were about to be annihilated in one of the most astonishing and brutal coups in English history.” 
  6. Thomas Cromwell - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 16 March 2015. “During his rise to power, Cromwell made many enemies, including his former ally Anne Boleyn; he played a prominent role in her downfall.”
  7. Second Succession Act - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  8. Treason Act 1536 - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  9. Dissolution of the Monasteries - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 5 January 2015.
  10. Henry VIII of England - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 5 January 2015.
  11. See of Rome Act 1536 - Wikipedia (2014). Retrieved on 5 January 2015.
  12. Story of the ship - The Mary Rose. The Mary Rose Museum, Portsmouth Historic Dockyard, Visitor Centre, Victory Gate, HM Naval Base, Portsmouth, United Kingdom. 2014 [last update]
  13. Mary Rose - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 16 March 2015. “The Mary Rose was a carrack-type warship of the English Tudor navy of King Henry VIII. After serving for 33 years in several wars against France, Scotland, and Brittany and after being substantially rebuilt in 1536, she saw her last action on 19 July 1545. While leading the attack on the galleys of a French invasion fleet, she sank in the Solent, the straits north of the Isle of Wight. The wreck of the Mary Rose was rediscovered in 1971 and salvaged in 1982 by the Mary Rose Trust in one of the most complex and expensive projects in the history of maritime archaeology. The surviving section of the ship and thousands of recovered artefacts are of immeasurable value as a Tudor-era time capsule.”
  14. History of Unemployment Insurance in the United States (Summary) (PDF), Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs (OCIA). 
  15. Punishment of Vagabonds and Beggars 1536 Henry VIII - Intriguing History. intriguing-history.com (May 31, 2012). Retrieved on 5 January 2015. “The need to fund the poor was a persistent problem and the start of an unpopular basis for taxing the workers.”
  16. Alex Shrugged notes: The first unemployment check was issued in the amount of $15 to to Neils B. Ruud of Madison, Wisconsin on August 17, 1936.
  17. Graham, Amanda. Circumpolar History Timetables: 1400-1449. 2001. (PDF DOCUMENT) Quote: "Norway ceases to be an independent kingdom (ODIN)."
  18. Denmark--Norway - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 16 March 2015. “Following the departure of Sweden from the Kalmar Union, and its subsequent dissolution, in 1524 Denmark and Norway entered into another personal union, under Danish hegemony. In 1536 the kingdom of Norway was formally dissolved and integrated into Denmark, and as a consequence its Council of the Realm was abolished. However, Norway continued to have separate institutions and its own laws. Norway was re-established as a kingdom in 1660 after the introduction of absolutism.”
  19. Personal union - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 16 March 2015. “A personal union is the combination of two or more states who have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.”
  20. absolutism - definition of absolutism. The Free Dictionary (2015). Retrieved on 16 March 2015. “A form of government in which all power is vested in a single ruler or other authority.”
  21. History of Norway. HistoryWorld.net (2015). Retrieved on 16 March 2015. “Rule by Christian III and his descendants, over a period of nearly three centuries, reduces Norway to a political backwater in the affairs of Europe. The region is administered by Danish officials; it suffers economic restrictions whenever its trade seems to compete with that of Denmark; and it is dragged by the parent kingdom into a succession of costly wars against Sweden.”
  22. Note from Wikiquotes: Address to the annual meeting of the Phoenix Chamber of Commerce (30 March 1961)

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