Sheep Among Wolves: The Anabaptist Movement is Born *
Some people people think that Martin Luther hasn't gone far enough so they have convinced the German peasants to start a war. The peasants think they are following Martin Luther, but he opposes the German Peasants' War and rejects its leaders. But there is a third group who believe in reform but won't join the war and won't follow Martin Luther either. They believe that True Christians should be like sheep living amongst wolves, tried in fire, refusing to kill and that Christians should be re-baptized with understanding rather than as infants. Their enemies call them Anabaptists... those who baptize AGAIN. They believe they are baptizing the FIRST time. In the modern day these Christians will be called Mennonites and the Amish.    
The Straightedge and Protractor
The first book on applied mathematics is published this year. Albrecht Dürer [DYOO-rer] is an artist convinced that perspective should be precise. He demonstrates in his book, "Instructions on Measurement" how to use the straight edge and protractor to produce more realistic images in 2 dimensions but also provides the mathematical proofs for why this should work. Over time he will not only influence artists, but cartographers as well, and will make possible the Mercator Projection map in later years. He won't see it happen though. In a couple of years he will die of fever ... one of the richest men in Nuremberg.    
In a Word: Spatula *
The word "spatula" comes into use in England. It literally means "little broadsword" but it actually refers to a broad flat piece of wood used for stirring or as splints. The word is also related to "spade" as in "shovel". 
This Year on Wikipedia
Year 1525, Wikipedia.
- * The asterisk in the section header indicates that it was read on the podcast.
- Cornelius J. Dyck. An Introduction to Mennonite History: a Popular History of the Anabaptists and the Mennonites. Herald Press. ISBN 9780836115437. OCLC 634941672. “True Christian believers are sheep among wolves, sheep for the slaughter; they must be baptized in anguish and affliction, tribulation, persecution, suffering, and death; they must be tried with fire, and must reach the fatherland of eternal rest, not by killing their bodily [sic], but by mortifying their spiritual enemies. Neither do they use worldly sword or war, since all killing has ceased with them.”
- Anabaptists - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 22 February 2015. “The name Anabaptist is derived from the Greek term anabaptista, or 'one who baptizes over again.' This name was given them by their persecutors in reference to the practice of re-baptizing converts who already had been baptized as infants.”
- Anabaptists: What Is an Anabaptist?. Anabaptists.org (2015). Retrieved on 22 February 2015. “Even though we now embrace that term as part of our identity, it really is an inaccurate term to describe the original Anabaptists. They never considered that any rebaptism took place -- they outright rejected and refuted the entire concept of infant baptism. To them, infant baptism would have been an oxymoron. They would have considered infant and baptism mutually exclusive.”
- (1910) Anabaptists, The Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 22 February 2015. “Like Luther, Zwingli, the originator of the Reformation in Switzerland, soon found more radical competitors. In 1525 some of his associates separated from him and preached rebaptism and communism. The party found two capable leaders in John Denk and Balthasar Hubmaier.”
- Haredi Judaism - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 22 February 2015. “Haredi Judaism (also spelled Charedi, plural Charedim) is a stream of Orthodox Judaism characterized by rejection of modern secular culture.”
- (1982) "DÜRER, Albrecht (dyoo'rer)", Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0385177712. “"In 1525 he published a book on geometrical constructions, using the straightedge and compass. Essentially, it was for use by artists, for this was at the height of the move for naturalism in art, a time when artists strove to present a perfect three-dimensional illusion on a two-dimensional surface. It might, from this standpoint, be considered the first surviving text on applied mathematics."”
- Albrecht Dürer - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 22 February 2015. “Dürer succeeded in producing two books during his lifetime. 'The Four Books on Measurement' were published at Nuremberg in 1525 and was the first book for adults on mathematics in German, as well as being cited later by Galileo and Kepler. The other, a work on city fortifications, was published in 1527. 'The Four Books on Human Proportion' were published posthumously, shortly after his death in 1528.”
- Albrecht Dürer and his Legacy. British Museum. ISBN 0714126330. OCLC 52147392. “He devoted most of his energy to publishing his theoretical ideas on proportion, Instructions on Measurement, in 1525 (cat. no. 167) and Four Books on Human Proportion, which came out in 1528 (cat. no. 172) shortly after his death, as well as a Treatise on Fortification in 1527 (cat. no. 170).”
- Alfred W. Crosby. The Measure of Reality. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521639905. OCLC 40221695.
- "Knight, Death and the Devil (Catalog Number 126)", Albrecht Dürer and his Legacy. British Museum, 186-187. ISBN 0714126330. OCLC 52147392.
- Spatula - Wikipedia (2015). Retrieved on 22 February 2015. “1525”