1448

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The Worshipful Company of Haberdashers

The term "haberdasher" refers to a person who sells ribbons, buttons and other small items for dress. A group of haberdashers who attend the same church have joined together to improve the quality of their wares. The Worshipful Company of Haberdashers have established a coat of arms and this year they have been granted a charter as a London guild. Additionally they will maintain standards on the cloth used for making uniforms that are part of a nobleman's livery. The term "livery" concerns more than uniforms. It includes food, transportation (such as the Worshipful Company of Car Men) and accessories such as hand fans. In the modern day these livery guilds have converted themselves to modern purposes. For example: the Worshipful Company of Fan Makers has become an air conditioning guild. The Worshipful Company of Haberdashers still exists today and has turned to raising money for the poor and military families. [1] [2] [3]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
These guilds served another purpose at the time. They placed a limit on commercialism. It was considered something of a sin to sell goods for money beyond the amount needed to maintain one's family. Even at that limit, it was considered a distasteful necessity. While the guilds were improving the quality of the goods that were sold, they were also controlling the profit they made while squeezing out their competition. However, as London expanded, they lost control of the outlying areas to rampant free trade... which may explain the expansion of the city.

The Will to Win: The Second Battle of Kosovo

The Kingdom of Hungary has been on the Ottoman's hit list ever since they took Kosovo from the Serbian Prince Lazar in 1389. The Hungarian Crusaders, led by John Hunyadi, pushed the Ottoman Turks back but the Serbian King George Branković has remained neutral so that his kingdom is not swallowed up by either side. John Hunyadi sees anyone who is not on his side as automatically for the OTHER side so John has attacked King George. King George informs the Ottomans of Johns movements and thus begins the Second Battle of Kosovo. The Hungarian and Albanian forces are outflanked and overrun by the Ottomans. John Hunyadi is captured and ransomed back to the Hungarians for 100,000 florins (about 13.9 million dollars). John's failure has doomed Hungary to future Ottoman control by Suleiman the Magnificent in 1526, but for now King George has saved the peace. In less than 10 years King George will die of old age and his son will POISON HIS OWN MOTHER in a fight for the throne. In the chaos the Turks will annex his kingdom. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
The basic failure is a lack of the will to win. John Hunyadi broke a cease fire treaty with the Ottomans. Even though he had the permission of the Pope to attack the Ottomans and even enslave them, there is an underlying moral problem with breaking one's word that cuts against the grain... even at this time when many a nobleman's oath is for sale. Technically speaking, the Pope can abrogate a treaty like this, but it seems wrong at heart... and it seems foolish. King George was right. The Ottomans were too strong. The Christians couldn't leave well enough alone, and take time to build up their forces. This defeat has broken the will of the Christians to win later.

Headline History News

  • The Chinese Clamp Down on Silver Miners: With the flood of the Yangtze River, and the closing of the local sea port, the economy has taken a nosedive. People are mining silver and its making paper money worthless. The Ming Dynasty will soon move in troops.[11] [12]
  • Vlad the Impaler (Dracula) Rules: After his father is assassinated, Vlad the Impaler fights for his rightful place as Prince of Walachia which is south of Transylvania. He rules for two months before he is deposed but he will be back.

[13] [14]

  • The Last Emperor: Constantine the 11th becomes the last Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. In a few years he will die in hand-to-hand combat defending the city walls of Constantinople.

[15] [16] [17] [18]

  • The Oldest Orchestra: The Royal Danish Orchestra has its beginnings as the Trumpet Corps of King Christian the 1st's royal court of Denmark established this year.

[19]

This Year in Wikipedia

Year 1448, Wikipedia.

See Also

References

  1. City Livery Companies. CityofLondon.gov.uk. 2014 [last update] Quote: "In medieval times, the term 'livery' was used for clothing, food and drink provided to the officers and retainers of great households. The term became associated with distinctive clothing and badges which were symbols of privilege and protection, and since the members of each guild were distinguished from other people in this way, the guilds gradually became known as livery companies."
  2. Haberdashers - Company History. Haberdashers.co.uk, 2014 [last update] Quote: "In 1446 the Company adopted its first Coat of Arms, an important symbol when many people could not read. In 1448 the Company was granted a charter of incorporation by Henry VI enabling it to hold land and to have its own Hall in which to hold meetings. The first of three subsequent Halls was built on the corner of Staining Lane and Maiden Lane (now Gresham Street) in 1459."
  3. Worshipful Company of Haberdashers - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  4. Battle of Kosovo (1448) - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  5. Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1991. p. 208-209. (BOOK) Quote: "Murad II defeats János Hunyady at Kossovo."
  6. Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1991. p. 206-207. (BOOK) Quote: "János Hunyady, the Hungarian national hero defeats the Turks at Nish."
  7. John Hunyadi - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  8. John Hunyadi (The Long Campaign) - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  9. Lazar of Serbia - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  10. Durad Branković - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  11. Gernet, Jacques. (translated by Foster, J. R. and Hartman, Charles) A History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge University Press. 1996. (BOOK)Quote: "Teng Mao-ch'i's forces soon joined up with those of the rebellious miners of the silver mines on the border between Chekiang and Fukien. [...] They were not a mere explosion of despair but a revolutionary movement whose leaders were very much aware of the links between the economic and social situation in their region, the centralized, authoritarian political system of the dynasty and the inevitable complicity of the government with the local gentry."
  12. Fujian: History - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  13. Vlad the Impaler - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  14. Pallardy, Richard. Vlad III (ruler of Walachia) -- Encyclopedia Britannica, britannica.com, 2014 [last update] Quote: "Vlad then embarked upon the first of a lifelong series of campaigns to regain his father's. His opponents included the boyars as well as his younger brother, who was supported by the Ottoman sultan. He emerged briefly victorious in 1448 but was deposed after only two months."
  15. Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1991. p. 208-209. (BOOK) Quote: "Constantine XI Palaeologus the last Byzantine emperor(-1453)."
  16. Despotate of the Morea - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  17. Constantinople - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  18. Constantine XI Palaiologos - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  19. Royal Danish Orchestra - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]

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