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The Pope, the King of France and Washington, D.C.

The Papal Schism (or Great Schism) was a split within the Church by factions seeking reform. The Church has been reunited by the Counsel of Constance, but the issues that caused the split in the first place continue to boil under the surface. For example: King Charles the 7th of France has formed a special French synod to push through various reforms in the French Church that he knows will never be implemented in Rome. Mainly the King wants control over the tax money collected by the Church and he wants a say over who the Church appoints as a bishop. Frankly, no French King would take kindly to the Pope appointing an Englishman as a bishop to France. [1] [2] [3] [4]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Putting the best face on the King's actions... King Charles probably didn't want Church taxes to be thrown down the rat hole called "Rome" any more. (Even the Pope can't maintain control over Rome.) This is similar to what many States like Texas think when they send their tax money to Washington, D.C. and get very little in return except more demands and no prospect of any reform in the future.

A note on violent crime: Rome in the Middle Ages is like Washington, D.C. is today. Recently (Sept 2014) a knife-wielding intruder, Omar Gonzalez, entered the Whitehouse and made it all the way to the East Room before being tackled by a Secret Service Agent who happened to be walking by. (Not checking an alert. Not on patrol, but clocking out and heading for home.) If the Whitehouse is not safe then there is NO SAFE PLACE no matter what the statistics say. Statistics jump to near 100 percent when a guy with a knife walks through your front door and all you are holding in your hand is your... five fingers.[5] [6] [7] [8]

The Inca Empire Begins

In the early 1200s, a warlord conquered the tribes in the valley of Cuzco (a valley in present day Peru) and became the first Inca ruler. They have remained in the valley until now. Now the Incas are in a panic as 40,000 Chankas have come to destroy them but Prince Pacacuti has not panicked. He manages to beat back the attack and kill over 22,000 of the Chanka. The Incas have discovered that they are strong. They will move out of the valley and become an empire in an amazingly short period of time. By 1450, construction of mountain retreat of Machu Picchu will begin. [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
The stories about the Incas seem more like legends. For example, the first Inca ruler was supposedly the son of the "sun god." Nevertheless, the expansion of the Incan Empire was unexpectedly swift once they emerged from that valley. They developed a knowledge of irrigation and that may have put them in a superior position compared to other tribes but given how vicious and strong the Chanka tribe was, there must have been a more substantial reason for the Inca victories.

This Year in Wikipedia

Year 1438, Wikipedia.

See Also


  1. Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim. (Barbara Tuchman, bio). A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. Ballantine, 1979. pp. 590-591. (BOOK) Quote: "The papacy was never again to be what it had been before the schism and the Councils. It had lost prestige in the first of these crises, and influence and control over the national churches in the second. In an expression of 'Gallican liberties,' a French synod in 1438 adopted reforms independently and restricted papal taxation of the French clergy."
  2. Council of Constance - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  3. Conciliarism - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  4. Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  5. Crime in Washington, D.C. - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  6. Washington DC crime rates and statistics - Neighborhood Scout. 2014 [last update] (WEB SITE) Description: "This looks like a real estate web site providing a look-up service for info on local neighborhoods." | Quote: "With a crime rate of 60 per one thousand residents, Washington has one of the highest crime rates in America compared to all communities of all sizes -- from the smallest towns to the very largest cities. One's chance of becoming a victim of either violent or property crime here is one in 17."
  7. Morgenstern, Madeleine. Newest Revelation: White House Fence-Jumper Was Tackled by Off-Duty Secret Service Agent - The Blaze. 2014-Sep-30. (WEB NEWS) Quote: "It's the latest revelation to come out of the embarrassing security incident, after the Post reported Monday that Omar Gonzalez actually made it deep into the house and was apprehended in the East Room, not near the entrance as the Secret Service initially said."
  8. Leonnig, Carol D., White House intruder was tackled by off-duty Secret Service agent - The Washington Post. 2014-Sep-30. (WEB NEWS) Quote: "In the breach this past month, Gonzalez, who was carrying a knife, reached the doorway to the Green Room, a parlor overlooking the South Lawn with artwork and antique furniture, according to three people familiar with the incident."
  9. Machu Picchu - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  10. 1400-1450 AD: 1438, HistoryCentral.com, 2014 [last update] Quote: "1438 AD Inca Dynasty Founded- The Inca Dynasty that ruled Peru until 1553 was founded in 1438. Its founder is said to have been Pachacutec. He rapidly expanded the empire."
  11. Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1991. p. 206. (BOOK) Quote: "Pachacutec founds Inca rule in Peru."
  12. Learn About the Mysterious Inca Civilization - Exploring Life's Mysteries, exploringlifesmysteries.com, 2014 [last update]
  13. Pachacuti - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  14. Inca Empire - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  15. Manco Cápac - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]
  16. Kingdom of Cusco - Wikipedia, 2014 [last update]

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