Contributed by David Verne
The province of Judea was one of several provinces that had become depopulated during the Second Jewish Revolt, also called the Kitos War. This revolt had occurred near the end of Trajan's reign, and it was a mass uprising of the dispersed Jewish population, with hotspots in Cyprus, Egypt, and modern day Libya. Hadrian decided to rebuild Jerusalem, which had been nearly destroyed during the First Jewish Revolt almost 60 years before. Hadrian decided to rebuild it as a Roman colony and renamed it Aelia Capitolina in honor of Jupiter. He also tried to Hellenize, make Greek, Judea through several anti-Jewish laws. This did not go over well with the Jews, who began preparing for another revolt. 
- Duncan, Mike (February 07, 2010). 83- May His Bones Be Crushed.