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It's a Global Law for a Global Economy... Except... No Globe

King Edward I of England, laid down the law in 1280 when he issued the Lex Mercatoria which established procedures for settling business disputes more cost effectively than in Common Court. Then, in 1285, the King established a business court for foreign merchants to settle disputes amongst themselves. Now the King has issued the "Carta Mercatoria" which establishes relations with the Hansa (a confederation of German merchants whose rules and regulations were popular throughout Europe) and require any commercial dispute between local and foreign merchants to have a jury composed of half foreigners and half locals. It won't be until 1353 when King Edward III will draw a distinct barrier between the Merchant and Common Law. In the years to come the French will complain that England has become an aristocracy of merchants. [1] [2][3]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Until this point the King has not set up pristine legal procedures. He just wants to collect his import/export taxes, and when there is a dispute between merchants, he wants it settled quickly SO THAT HE CAN GET PAID. These new courts and regulations also make it easier for foreign merchants to do business in England, hire business agents, sign promissory notes and assign/collect debts... the normal things foreign merchants must do quickly when they don't have months on end to sit in court. This was especially true with the old "Wager of Law" requirement. A merchant would have to round up ELEVEN people to swear to his honesty on every dispute. For a local Mom-and-Pop store, that was no problem but for the foreign merchant, he was hosed. King Edward I broomed all that with these series of measures.[4] [5][6]

University Students Can Get Away with Murder

In a papal bull, Pope Boneface VIII converts an ongoing private educational corporation into the Pope's first institution for higher learning. Sapienza University of Rome will teach the clergy in a formal way under better control. In the Middle Ages most of the high-level Church leadership are well-educated but at the local level most of the priests and monks are reciting services by rote, without a lot of understanding so this university idea will produce a more consistent and professional clergy. Also, the students are protected by clerical rules. They are considered like priests and therefore can only be tried for crimes in a religious court where the defendant is "presumed innocent". But the rules of evidence are onerous, so it is difficult to convict a student of a crime. Thus students often "get away with murder" in the literal sense. [7] [8] [9] [10]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Pope Boneface VIII is all about control. That is why he is in conflict with the King of France now. In the modern day the Pope will be unwelcome at Sapienza University. They will protest Pope Benedict XVI 2008 for supposedly defending the Church's actions against Galileo. That... is just whacked. It's flip-wise of Notre Dame University (a Catholic University) inviting President Obama to give the commencement address when he is working to subvert Catholic standards! Again... that's just whacked. [11] [12][13]

Going "Jim Jones" in India

It is love at first sight for Sultan Alauddin Khilji as he catches a glance of Queen Rani Padmini of Chittor in the mirror. He immediately works for an exchange. Then he lays siege to the city like the Romans did at Masada (Israel). Chittor stands NO CHANCE against the Sultan in battle but their motto seems to be "Victory or Death" so they gird their loins and open the gates. It's a slaughter. By the time the Sultan enters the city, all the Chittor men are dead and the women and children have thrown themselves into the fire in an act of holy suicide... including his beloved Queen Rani. Alauddin Khilji rules a kingdom spanning northern India and beyond. He has repelled the Mongols and thrived. He has everything a man could want except the woman he loves. [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
If this all sounds like a load of crap, remember that most of the information for this event comes from a romantic poem, written by the VICTORS of the attack on Fort Chittor. The Sultan was gobbling up territories and probably used this story to justify his attack. I doubt he was in love. Remember that Medieval people did not think in the same manner that we do today. There was no "Scientific Method" so there was no requirement for the details of a story to reflect what actually happened. Really. I'm not kidding. They didn't think of it as lying or deception. In some respects they thought the same way our politicians do today.... not a lot of self-refection.

See Also


  1. Munro, John H.. Taylor and Francis, Ltd.. The Medieval Origins of the Financial Revolution: Usury, Rentes, and Negotiability. The International History Review, Vol. 25, No. 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. 505-562. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/40109398>
  2. FYI, the "aristocracy of merchants" remark comes from Alex Shrugged's memory of his reading. He believes it comes from Norman F. Cantor's "Inventing the Middle Ages" but he can't lay his finger on the exact citation right now.
  3. Hanseatic League, Wikipedia
  4. Exodus 22:11, This bible reference was used in English Law to establish the facts in a case.
  5. Negotiable Instrument, Wikipedia
  6. Wager of Law, Wikipedia
  7. Sapienza University of Rome, Official web site (English)
  8. Sapienza University of Rome, Wikipedia
  9. Studium/Medieval University, Wikipedia
  10. Ecclesiastical Court, Wikipedia
  11. Pope Benedict XVI's Speech, Planned but not given (Translated into English)
  12. Papal visit scuppered by scholars, from BBC News, 15 January 2008.
  13. Hundreds Rally Against Notre Dame's Obama Invite, Katherine T. Phan, Christian Post Reporter, April 6, 2009
  14. The Khilji Dynasty: Alauddin Khilji, from Web India 123. (WEB)
  15. Allauddin Khilji Biography, from Maps of India, February 1, 2014. (WEB)
  16. Medieval History of India: Alauddin Khilji, from I Love India,
  17. Masada Desert Fortress, from the Jewish Virtual Library
  18. Alauddin Khilji, Wikipedia.
  19. Rani Padmini, Wikipedia.
  20. "Jim Jones" Mass Suicide, Wikipedia

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