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Aristotle Banned. Modern Science Begins

Bishop Tempier issues a ban on certain teachings of Aristotle at the University of Paris. While it is not clear that the Bishop has scientific objectivity in mind when he issues his ban, the ban has the effect of giving scientific inquiry a good swift kick in the backside. Aristotle has taken them about as far as he could. They are on their own now and they are ready. [1] [2] [3]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
While Aristotelian logic had advanced scientific thinking for centuries, it makes a number of erroneous assertions such as projectiles are NOT propelled by the energy conveyed to it at the time of release, there can be no other worlds like Earth and it asserted that a vacuum was impossible. Aristotelian logic is a magnificent way of figuring things out but it has its limits. To learn the practical virtues of Aristotelian logic with a basic education, I recommend the book Aristotle for Everyone by Mortimer J. Adler. [4]

The Great Wall Is Completed... in Japan

Anticipating another invasion of the Mongols, the Japanese Samurai have completed their fortifications of Hakata Bay. It is a substantial wall: 15 feet high and 25 miles long. While it is not clear if the wall will be THE critical factor in repelling the invasion, it will certainly help. The Mongols are coming. Everyone knows that. [5] [6] [7]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
If the Samurai don't have spies in Korea by now watching for the Mongol preparations, they are idiots. The reports of Mongol preparations are probably driving the building of the wall.

Another Pope Dies. Hope the New Pope Lasts

After electing four Popes last year, Pope John XXI dies in the collapse of his apartment and is succeeded by Pope Nicolas III. Nepotism is the order of the day as he uses his family influence first to get elected as Pope and then elevates three of his relatives to Cardinal. Pope Nicolas III will live about three years in office. [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Even though Pope Nicolas III looks like a bit of a wheeler-dealer, he knew St. Francis of Assisi. That must count for something. But in Dante's Inferno, Dante consigns Pope Nicolas to the part of Hell reserved for those who bought their way into office.

See Also


  1. Historical Events for Year 1277, from History Org
  2. Catholic Encyclopedia: History of Physics, from Wikisource
  3. Condemnations of 1210-1277, Wikipedia
  4. Aristotle for Everyone by Mortimer J. Adler, 1978
  5. Battling the Elements: Weather and Terrain in the Conduct of War, Harold A. Winters, Gerald E. Galloway Jr., William J. Reynolds, David W. Rhyne, JHU Press, Mar 9, 2001, pp. 13-15
  6. Year 1277, Wikipedia
  7. Battle of Koan, Wikipedia
  8. Historical Events for Year 1277, from History Orb
  9. Pope Gregory X, Wikipedia
  10. Pope Innocent V, Wikipedia
  11. Pope Adrian V, Wikipedia
  12. Pope John XXI, Wikipedia
  13. Pope Nicholas III, Wikipedia

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