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King Alexander Ends War... with Cash

After years of conflict King Alexander III of Scotland and King Magnus IV of Norway settle their differences with cash. The Treaty of Perth is an oddly vague document that conveys title of the islands west of Scotland unconditionally to Scotland while Norway places conditions on the conveyance. It will all work out. The point is... peace.

The Shetland Isles to the north will not become part of Scotland until the mid-1400s when the King of Norway will pawn them to Scotland for a dowry of marriage and then "forget" to redeem them. It's all good. [1] [2]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
A more recent example of using CASH NOT WAR is when the USA bought disputed land from Mexico (the Gadsden Purchase, 1854) instead of sending the Marines back to "the Halls of Montezuma!" Unfortunately they made us take Tuscon. :-)

King Henry Lets Barons Buy Their Own Property

The last of the rebel Barons make peace with King Henry III of England. The King graciously allows the Barons to buy back their confiscated properties but the King has lost his momentum. The real power is with the future...his son, Prince Edward I. [3] [4] [5]

My Take by Alex Shrugged
Despite this ignoble ending, the Baron Wars set England on the path to constrain the monarchy and set up Parliament as adviser to the king or queen.

See Also


  1. "The Treaty of Perth: A Re-Examination" by Richard I. Lustig, The Scottish Historical Review, Vol. 58, No. 165, Part 1 (Apr., 1979), pp. 35-57, Edinburgh University Press.
  2. Shetland:Pawned to Scotland - Wikipedia
  3. "Second Barons' War: Battle of Evesham - Aftermath" by Kennedy Hickman
  4. "Battle of Evesham", English Heritage, 1995
  5. "The Barons' War" By David Ross, Editor

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